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Review

Dark Matters on the Scale of Galaxies

1
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy
2
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2020, 6(8), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6080107
Received: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
The cold dark-matter model successfully explains both the emergence and evolution of cosmic structures on large scales and, when we include a cosmological constant, the properties of the homogeneous and isotropic Universe. However, the cold dark-matter model faces persistent challenges on the scales of galaxies. Indeed, N-body simulations predict some galaxy properties that are at odds with the observations. These discrepancies are primarily related to the dark-matter distribution in the innermost regions of the halos of galaxies and to the dynamical properties of dwarf galaxies. They may have three different origins: (1) the baryonic physics affecting galaxy formation is still poorly understood and it is thus not properly included in the model; (2) the actual properties of dark matter differs from those of the conventional cold dark matter; (3) the theory of gravity departs from General Relativity. Solving these discrepancies is a rapidly evolving research field. We illustrate some of the solutions proposed within the cold dark-matter model, and solutions when including warm dark matter, self-interacting dark matter, axion-like particles, or fuzzy dark matter. We also illustrate some modifications of the theory of gravity: Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), MOdified Gravity (MOG), and f(R) gravity. View Full-Text
Keywords: axions; cosmology; dark matter; dark-matter theory; dwarf galaxies; gravity; local group; modified gravity; particle physics—cosmology connection; rotation curves of galaxies axions; cosmology; dark matter; dark-matter theory; dwarf galaxies; gravity; local group; modified gravity; particle physics—cosmology connection; rotation curves of galaxies
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Martino, I.; Chakrabarty, S.S.; Cesare, V.; Gallo, A.; Ostorero, L.; Diaferio, A. Dark Matters on the Scale of Galaxies. Universe 2020, 6, 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6080107

AMA Style

de Martino I, Chakrabarty SS, Cesare V, Gallo A, Ostorero L, Diaferio A. Dark Matters on the Scale of Galaxies. Universe. 2020; 6(8):107. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6080107

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Martino, Ivan, Sankha S. Chakrabarty, Valentina Cesare, Arianna Gallo, Luisa Ostorero, and Antonaldo Diaferio. 2020. "Dark Matters on the Scale of Galaxies" Universe 6, no. 8: 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6080107

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