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Article

The Impact of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Seasonal Variation of the Ionospheric Critical Frequency f0F2

1
Astronomy, Space Science & Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
2
Astronomy and Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo 11488, Egypt
3
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan 11421, Cairo, Egypt
4
International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2020, 6(11), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6110200
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 17 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Weather)
We investigated the relations between the monthly average values of the critical frequency (f0F2) and the physical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), then we examined the seasonal variation of f0F2 values as an impact of the several CMEs properties. Given that, f0F2 were detected by PRJ18 (Puerto Rico) ionosonde station during the period 1996–2013. We found that the monthly average values of f0F2 are varying coherently with the sunspot number (SSN). A similar trend was found for f0F2 with the CMEs parameters such as the CME energy (linear correlation coefficient R = 0.73), width (R = 0.6) and the speed (R = 0.6). The arrived CMEs cause a plasma injection into the ionosphere, in turn, increasing the electron density, and consequently, f0F2 values. This happens in the high latitudes followed by the middle and lower latitudes. By examining the seasonal variation of f0F2, we found that the higher correlation between f0F2 and CMEs parameters occurs in the summer, then the equinoxes (spring and autumn), followed by the winter. However, the faster CMEs affect the ionosphere more efficiently in the spring more than in the summer, then the winter and the autumn seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronal mass ejection; ionosphere; critical frequency of the F2 layer; solar activity; sunspot number coronal mass ejection; ionosphere; critical frequency of the F2 layer; solar activity; sunspot number
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farid, H.M.; Mawad, R.; Ghamry, E.; Yoshikawa, A. The Impact of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Seasonal Variation of the Ionospheric Critical Frequency f0F2. Universe 2020, 6, 200. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6110200

AMA Style

Farid HM, Mawad R, Ghamry E, Yoshikawa A. The Impact of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Seasonal Variation of the Ionospheric Critical Frequency f0F2. Universe. 2020; 6(11):200. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6110200

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farid, Hussein M., Ramy Mawad, Essam Ghamry, and Akimasa Yoshikawa. 2020. "The Impact of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Seasonal Variation of the Ionospheric Critical Frequency f0F2" Universe 6, no. 11: 200. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6110200

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