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Communication

Evidence for Solar Modulation on the Millennial-Scale Climate Change of Earth

1
State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
2
Institute of Space Science and Applied Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012, China
4
Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (CERES), Salem, MA 01970, USA
5
Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México D. F. 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2020, 6(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090153
Received: 26 July 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Weather)
In this study, we use available reconstructed data to investigate periodicities of solar activity (i.e., sunspot number) and the Earth’s climate change (temperatures of Lake Qinghai in China and Vostok in Antarctica, the GISP δ18O climate record of Greenland, and the stalagmite δ18O monsoon records of Dongge Cave in China) as well as their cross-wavelet coherences on millennial scale. We find that the variations of the Earth’s climate indices exhibited the 1000-year cyclicity, which was recently discovered in solar activity (called Eddy cycle). The cross-wavelet correlations between the millennium-cycle components of sunspot number and the Earth’s climate change remains both strong and stable during the past 8640 years (BC 6755–AD 1885). The millennial variation of sunspot number keeps in-phase with variations of Lake Qinghai temperature, Greenland temperature, and East Asian Monsoon, but anti-phase with the variation of Antarctica temperature. The strong and stable resonant relationships between sunspot numbers and these climate indices indicate that solar variability may have played a role in modulation on this millennial seesaw pattern of the Earth’s climate change before the modern industrial era. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar variability; climate change; periodicity; wavelet coherence solar variability; climate change; periodicity; wavelet coherence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, X.; Soon, W.; Velasco Herrera, V.M. Evidence for Solar Modulation on the Millennial-Scale Climate Change of Earth. Universe 2020, 6, 153. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090153

AMA Style

Zhao X, Soon W, Velasco Herrera VM. Evidence for Solar Modulation on the Millennial-Scale Climate Change of Earth. Universe. 2020; 6(9):153. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090153

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Xinhua, Willie Soon, and Victor M. Velasco Herrera 2020. "Evidence for Solar Modulation on the Millennial-Scale Climate Change of Earth" Universe 6, no. 9: 153. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090153

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