Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Cosmological Perturbations in Phantom Dark Energy Models
Previous Article in Journal
The Baryon Phase-Transition Model and the too strange Standard Model of Cosmology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Universe 2017, 3(1), 21;

3-Form Cosmology: Phantom Behaviour, Singularities and Interactions

1,* , 2,3,1,4,†
Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Centro de Matemática e Aplicações da Universidade da Beira Interior (CMA-UBI), Rua Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
On leave of absence from UPV/EHU and IKERBASQUE.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mariusz P. Dąbrowski, Manuel Krämer and Vincenzo Salzano
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Varying Constants and Fundamental Cosmology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [713 KB, uploaded 6 March 2017]   |  


The latest cosmological observations by the Planck collaboration (and combined with others) are compatible with a phantom-like behaviour ( w < 1 ) for the dark energy equation of state that drives the current acceleration of the Universe. With this mindset, we look into models where dark energy is described by a 3-form field minimally coupled to gravity. When compared to a scalar field, these models have the advantage of more naturally accommodating a cosmological-constant and phantom-like behaviours. We show how the latter happens for a fairly general class of positive-valued potentials, and through a dynamical system approach, we find that in such cases the 3-form field leads the Universe into a Little Sibling of the Big Rip singular event into the future. In this work, we explore the possibility of avoiding such singularity via an interaction in the dark sector between cold dark matter and the 3-form field. For the kind of interactions considered, we deduce a condition for replacing the LSBR by a late time de Sitter phase. For specific examples of interactions that meet this condition, we look for distinctive imprints in the statefinder hierarchy { S 3 ( 1 ) ; S 4 ( 1 ) } , { S 3 ( 1 ) ; S 5 ( 1 ) } , and in the growth rate of matter, ϵ ( z ) , through the composite null diagnostic (CND). View Full-Text
Keywords: dark energy 3-forms; DM-DE interaction; future singularities; cosmography; statefinders approach; growth rate; dynamical systems dark energy 3-forms; DM-DE interaction; future singularities; cosmography; statefinders approach; growth rate; dynamical systems

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Morais, J.; Bouhmadi-López, M.; Marto, J. 3-Form Cosmology: Phantom Behaviour, Singularities and Interactions. Universe 2017, 3, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Universe EISSN 2218-1997 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top