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Open AccessArticle

Ancient Danish Apple Cultivars—A Comprehensive Metabolite and Sensory Profiling of Apple Juices

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Novozymes, Biologiens Vej 2, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
3
Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
4
Bruker BioSpin, Silberstreifen 4, 76287 Rheinstetten, Germany
5
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Hoejbakkegaard Alle 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(7), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9070139
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
In recent decades, intensive selective breeding programs have allowed the development of disease-resistant and flavorsome apple cultivars while leading to a gradual decline of a large number of ancient varieties in many countries. However, the re-evaluation of such cultivars could lead to the production new apple-based products with health beneficial properties and/or unique flavor qualities. Herein, we report the comprehensive characterization of juices obtained from 86 old, mostly Danish, apple cultivars, by employing traditional analysis (ion chromatography, °Brix, headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and panel test evaluation) as well as an innovative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based screening method developed by Bruker for fruit juices, known as Spin Generated Fingerprint (SGF) Profiling™. Principal component analysis showed large differences in aroma components and sensory characteristics, including odd peculiar odors and flavors such as apricot and peach, and very different levels of phenolic compounds, acids and sugars among the analyzed juices. Moreover, we observed a tendency for late-season juices to be characterized by higher °Brix values, sugar content and they were perceived to be sweeter and more flavor intense than early-season juices. Our findings are useful for the production of specialty vintage-cultivar apple juices or mixed juices to obtain final products that are characterized both by healthy properties and peculiar sensory attributes. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple juice; ancient apple cultivars; Bruker-SGF Fruit Juice Screener; NMR; sensory analysis; HS-GC/MS apple juice; ancient apple cultivars; Bruker-SGF Fruit Juice Screener; NMR; sensory analysis; HS-GC/MS
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Iaccarino, N.; Varming, C.; Agerlin Petersen, M.; Viereck, N.; Schütz, B.; Toldam-Andersen, T.B.; Randazzo, A.; Balling Engelsen, S. Ancient Danish Apple Cultivars—A Comprehensive Metabolite and Sensory Profiling of Apple Juices. Metabolites 2019, 9, 139.

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