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Propolis Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect on PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells via Inhibition of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

1
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (University of Dammam), Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
3
Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia Campus UI, Depok 16424, Indonesia
4
Apiceutical Research Centre, 6 Hunter Street, Whitby, North Yorkshire YO21 3DA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9040075
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Study of Disease)
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Abstract

Previous research has shown that propolis has immunomodulatory activity. Propolis extracts from different geographic origins were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities by investigating their ability to alter the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-10 in THP-1-derived macrophage cells co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All the propolis extracts suppressed the TNF-α and IL-6 LPS-stimulated levels. Similar suppression effects were detected for IL-1β, but the release of this cytokine was synergised by propolis samples from Ghana and Indonesia when compared with LPS. Overall, the Cameroonian propolis extract (P-C) was the most active and this was evaluated for its effects on the metabolic profile of unstimulated macrophages or macrophages activated by LPS. The levels of 81 polar metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on a ZIC-pHILIC column. LPS altered the energy, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism in THP-1 cells, and interpretation of the metabolic pathways showed that P-C reversed some of the effects of LPS. Overall, the results showed that propolis extracts exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by metabolic reprogramming of LPS activity in macrophage cells, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; LPS stimulation; THP-1 cells; PMA differentiated; macrophages propolis; pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; LPS stimulation; THP-1 cells; PMA differentiated; macrophages
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Alqarni, A.M.; Niwasabutra, K.; Sahlan, M.; Fearnley, H.; Fearnley, J.; Ferro, V.A.; Watson, D.G. Propolis Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect on PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells via Inhibition of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase. Metabolites 2019, 9, 75.

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