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Open AccessArticle

The Absence of Pyruvate Kinase Affects Glucose-Dependent Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacillus subtilis

1
Institute of Biochemistry, University of Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany
2
Innovayt S/A, Av. João Paulo II 30, 4715-213 Braga, Portugal
3
Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, Düsseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100216
Received: 25 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
Pyruvate is a key intermediate of diverse metabolic pathways of central carbon metabolism. In addition to being the end product of glycolysis, pyruvate is an essential carbon distribution point to oxidative metabolism, amino acid and fatty acid syntheses, and overflow metabolite production. Hence, a tight regulation of pyruvate kinase (Pyk) activity is of great importance. This study aimed to analyze targeted metabolites from several pathways and possible changes in Bacillus subtilis lacking Pyk. Wild type and Δpyk cells were cultivated in chemically defined medium with glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources, and the extracted metabolites were analyzed by 1H-NMR, GC-MS, HPLC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. The results showed that the perturbation created in the pyruvate node drove an adaptation to new conditions by altering the nutritional compounds’ consumption. In Δpyk, pyruvate, which is subject to glucose-dependent carbon catabolite repression, did not comply with the hierarchy in carbon source utilization. Other metabolic alterations were observed such as the higher secretion of the overflow metabolites acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by Δpyk. Our results help to elucidate the regulatory transport of glucose and pyruvate in B. subtilis and possible metabolic reroute to alternative pathways in the absence of Pyk.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; metabolomics; pyruvate kinase; pyruvate; carbon catabolite repression; overflow metabolites Bacillus subtilis; metabolomics; pyruvate kinase; pyruvate; carbon catabolite repression; overflow metabolites
MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa, J.; Westhoff, P.; Methling, K.; Lalk, M. The Absence of Pyruvate Kinase Affects Glucose-Dependent Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacillus subtilis. Metabolites 2019, 9, 216.

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