Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes underlying AAP treatment and side effects. Bipolar patients on AAPs or mood stabilizers underwent a fasting muscle biopsy and assessment of insulin sensitivity. A lipidomic analysis of total fatty acids (TFAs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and ceramides (CERs) was performed on the muscle biopsies, then lipid species were compared between treatment groups, and correlation analyses were performed with insulin sensitivity. TFAs and PCs were decreased and CERs were increased in the AAP group relative to those in the mood stabilizer group (FDR q
-value <0.05). A larger number of TFAs and PCs were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity in the AAP group compared to those in the mood stabilizer group. In contrast, a larger number of CERs were negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity in the AAP group compared to that in the mood stabilizer group. The findings here suggest that AAPs are associated with changes in the lipid profiles of human skeletal muscle when compared to mood stabilizers and that these changes correlate with insulin sensitivity.
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