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Metabolites 2018, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8010009

Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes

1
Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
3
Thermo Fisher Scientific, Somerset, NJ 08873, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Metabolomics Volume 2)
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Abstract

Identifying non-annotated peaks may have a significant impact on the understanding of biological systems. In silico methodologies have focused on ESI LC/MS/MS for identifying non-annotated MS peaks. In this study, we employed in silico methodology to develop an Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) workflow using enhanced mass spectrometric data acquired with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS to determine the identity of non-annotated metabolites. The higher resolution of the GC-Orbitrap/MS, together with its wide dynamic range, resulted in more IROA peak pairs detected, and increased reliability of chemical formulae generation (CFG). IROA uses two different 13C-enriched carbon sources (randomized 95% 12C and 95% 13C) to produce mirror image isotopologue pairs, whose mass difference reveals the carbon chain length (n), which aids in the identification of endogenous metabolites. Accurate m/z, n, and derivatization information are obtained from our GC/MS workflow for unknown metabolite identification, and aids in silico methodologies for identifying isomeric and non-annotated metabolites. We were able to mine more mass spectral information using the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth protocol (Qiu et al. Anal. Chem 2016) with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS, using 10% ammonia in methane as the CI reagent gas. We identified 244 IROA peaks pairs, which significantly increased IROA detection capability compared with our previous report (126 IROA peak pairs using a GC-TOF/MS machine). For 55 selected metabolites identified from matched IROA CI and EI spectra, using the GC-Orbitrap/MS vs. GC-TOF/MS, the average mass deviation for GC-Orbitrap/MS was 1.48 ppm, however, the average mass deviation was 32.2 ppm for the GC-TOF/MS machine. In summary, the higher resolution and wider dynamic range of the GC-Orbitrap/MS enabled more accurate CFG, and the coupling of accurate mass GC/MS IROA methodology with in silico fragmentation has great potential in unknown metabolite identification, with applications for characterizing model organism networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: isotopic ratio outlier analysis; GC-Orbitrap/MS; positive chemical ionization; S. cerevisiae; in silico fragmentation; unknown metabolite identification isotopic ratio outlier analysis; GC-Orbitrap/MS; positive chemical ionization; S. cerevisiae; in silico fragmentation; unknown metabolite identification
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Qiu, Y.; Moir, R.D.; Willis, I.M.; Seethapathy, S.; Biniakewitz, R.C.; Kurland, I.J. Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes. Metabolites 2018, 8, 9.

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