Next Article in Journal
Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Defining the Baseline and Oxidant Perturbed Lipidomic Profiles of Daphnia magna
Previous Article in Journal
QSRR Modeling for Metabolite Standards Analyzed by Two Different Chromatographic Columns Using Multiple Linear Regression
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2017, 7(1), 8;

Application of Passive Sampling to Characterise the Fish Exometabolome

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility-Metabolomics Node (NBAF-B), School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Liebeke
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Metabolomics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1367 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  


The endogenous metabolites excreted by organisms into their surrounding environment, termed the exometabolome, are important for many processes including chemical communication. In fish biology, such metabolites are also known to be informative markers of physiological status. While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the endogenous biochemistry of organisms, no non-targeted studies of the metabolic complexity of fish exometabolomes have been reported to date. In environmental chemistry, Chemcatcher® (Portsmouth, UK) passive samplers have been developed to sample for micro-pollutants in water. Given the importance of the fish exometabolome, we sought to evaluate the capability of Chemcatcher® samplers to capture a broad spectrum of endogenous metabolites excreted by fish and to measure these using non-targeted direct infusion mass spectrometry metabolomics. The capabilities of C18 and styrene divinylbenzene reversed-phase sulfonated (SDB-RPS) Empore™ disks for capturing non-polar and polar metabolites, respectively, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated real, complex metabolite mixtures excreted from two model fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In total, 344 biological samples and 28 QC samples were analysed, revealing 646 and 215 m/z peaks from trout and stickleback, respectively. The measured exometabolomes were principally affected by the type of Empore™ (Hemel Hempstead, UK) disk and also by the sampling time. Many peaks were putatively annotated, including several bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholate, taurocholate, glycocholate, glycolithocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate). Collectively these observations show the ability of Chemcatcher® passive samplers to capture endogenous metabolites excreted from fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: DIMS; FT-ICR; bile acid; environmental metabolomics; metabolic footprinting; fish; exogenous DIMS; FT-ICR; bile acid; environmental metabolomics; metabolic footprinting; fish; exogenous

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Viant, M.R.; Elphinstone Davis, J.; Duffy, C.; Engel, J.; Stenton, C.; Sebire, M.; Katsiadaki, I. Application of Passive Sampling to Characterise the Fish Exometabolome. Metabolites 2017, 7, 8.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top