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Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by E-Cigarette Vaping and Cigarette Smoking

1
Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2
Department of Nutrition, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy E. O’Toole
Metabolites 2021, 11(6), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11060345
Received: 7 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
Metabolites are essential intermediate products in metabolism, and metabolism dysregulation indicates different types of diseases. Previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke dysregulated metabolites; however, limited information is available with electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping. We hypothesized that e-cig vaping and cigarette smoking alters systemic metabolites, and we propose to understand the specific metabolic signature between e-cig users and cigarette smokers. Plasma from non-smoker controls, cigarette smokers, and e-cig users was collected, and metabolites were identified by UPLC-MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer). Nicotine degradation was activated by e-cig vaping and cigarette smoking with increased concentrations of cotinine, cotinine N-oxide, (S)-nicotine, and (R)-6-hydroxynicotine. Additionally, we found significantly decreased concentrations in metabolites associated with tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pathways in e-cig users versus cigarette smokers, such as d-glucose, (2R,3S)-2,3-dimethylmalate, (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, O-phosphoethanolamine, malathion, d-threo-isocitrate, malic acid, and 4-acetamidobutanoic acid. Cigarette smoking significant upregulated sphingolipid metabolites, such as d-sphingosine, ceramide, N-(octadecanoyl)-sphing-4-enine, N-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sphing-4-enine, and N-[(13Z)-docosenoyl]-sphingosine, versus e-cig vaping. Overall, e-cig vaping dysregulated TCA cycle-related metabolites while cigarette smoking altered sphingolipid metabolites. Both e-cig and cigarette smoke increased nicotinic metabolites. Therefore, specific metabolic signatures altered by e-cig vaping and cigarette smoking could serve as potential systemic biomarkers for early pathogenesis of cardiopulmonary diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolome; TCA; lipids; e-cigarette; cigarette; biomarkers metabolome; TCA; lipids; e-cigarette; cigarette; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Q.; Ji, X.; Rahman, I. Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by E-Cigarette Vaping and Cigarette Smoking. Metabolites 2021, 11, 345. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11060345

AMA Style

Wang Q, Ji X, Rahman I. Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by E-Cigarette Vaping and Cigarette Smoking. Metabolites. 2021; 11(6):345. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11060345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Qixin, Xiangming Ji, and Irfan Rahman. 2021. "Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by E-Cigarette Vaping and Cigarette Smoking" Metabolites 11, no. 6: 345. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11060345

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