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Article

Plasma Acylcarnitines during Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort

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Department of Epidemiology, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
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Department of Population Health, Division of Biostatistics, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
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Department of Population Medicine and Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
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Division of Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
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Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
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Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Department of O&G, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonardo Tenori
Metabolites 2021, 11(12), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120885
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Frontiers in Metabolomics)
As surrogate readouts reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction, elevated levels of plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with cardiometabolic disorders, such as obesity, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine prospective associations of acylcarnitine profiles across gestation with neonatal anthropometry, including birthweight, birthweight z score, body length, sum of skinfolds, and sum of body circumferences. We quantified 28 acylcarnitines using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in plasma collected at gestational weeks 10–14, 15–26, 23–31, and 33–39 among 321 pregnant women from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons. A latent-class trajectory approach was applied to identify trajectories of acylcarnitines across gestation. We examined the associations of individual acylcarnitines and distinct trajectory groups with neonatal anthropometry using weighted generalized linear models adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, gestational age at blood collection, and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). We identified three distinct trajectory groups in C2, C3, and C4 and two trajectory groups in C5, C10, C5–DC, C8:1, C10:1, and C12, respectively. Women with nonlinear decreasing C12 levels across gestation (5.7%) had offspring with significantly lower birthweight (−475 g; 95% CI, −942, −6.79), birthweight z score (−0.39, −0.71, −0.06), and birth length (−1.38 cm, −2.49, −0.27) than those with persistently stable C12 levels (94.3%) (all nominal p value < 0.05). Women with consistently higher levels of C10 (6.1%) had offspring with thicker sum of skinfolds (4.91 mm, 0.85, 8.98) than did women with lower levels (93.9%) during pregnancy, whereas women with lower C10:1 levels (12.6%) had offspring with thicker sum of skinfolds (3.23 mm, 0.19, 6.27) than did women with abruptly increasing levels (87.4%) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that distinctive trajectories of C10, C10:1, and C12 acylcarnitine levels throughout pregnancy were significantly associated with neonatal anthropometry. View Full-Text
Keywords: acylcarnitine; birthweight; body length; sum of skinfolds; sum of body circumference; pregnancy; women; gestational weeks; neonatal anthropometry acylcarnitine; birthweight; body length; sum of skinfolds; sum of body circumference; pregnancy; women; gestational weeks; neonatal anthropometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; Lyu, C.; Li, M.; Rahman, M.L.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, Y.; Hinkle, S.N.; Chen, L.; Mitro, S.D.; Li, L.-J.; Weir, N.L.; Tsai, M.Y.; Zhang, C. Plasma Acylcarnitines during Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort. Metabolites 2021, 11, 885. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120885

AMA Style

Song Y, Lyu C, Li M, Rahman ML, Chen Z, Zhu Y, Hinkle SN, Chen L, Mitro SD, Li L-J, Weir NL, Tsai MY, Zhang C. Plasma Acylcarnitines during Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort. Metabolites. 2021; 11(12):885. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120885

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Yiqing, Chen Lyu, Ming Li, Mohammad L. Rahman, Zhen Chen, Yeyi Zhu, Stefanie N. Hinkle, Liwei Chen, Susanna D. Mitro, Ling-Jun Li, Natalie L. Weir, Michael Y. Tsai, and Cuilin Zhang. 2021. "Plasma Acylcarnitines during Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort" Metabolites 11, no. 12: 885. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120885

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