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Open AccessArticle

Identification of Potential Biomarkers in the Cervicovaginal Fluid by Metabolic Profiling for Preterm Birth

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Ewha Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07984, Korea
2
Integrated Metabolomics Research Group, Western Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 03759, Korea
3
Department of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
4
Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
5
Department of Chemistry & Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution as first author.
Metabolites 2020, 10(9), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10090349
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
During pregnancy, dysbiosis in the vaginal microbiota directly affects the metabolic profiles, which might impact preterm birth (PTB). In this study, we performed cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) metabolic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and identified the metabolic markers for predicting PTB. In this nested case-control study, 43 South Korean pregnant women with PTB (n = 22), and term birth (TB; n = 21) were enrolled with their demographic profiles, and CVF samples were collected by vaginal swabs. The PTB group had two subgroups based on post-CVF sampling birth: PTB less than (PTB < 7 d) and more than 7 days (PTB ≥ 7 d). We observed significant differences in the gestational age at birth (GAB), cervical length (CL), and neonatal birth weight among the groups. The principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scatter plot showed the separation between the PTB < 7 d group, and the TB group. Out of 28 identified metabolites, acetone, ethanol, ethylene glycol, formate, glycolate, isopropanol, methanol, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were significantly increased in the PTB group compared with the TB group. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the acetone, ethylene glycol, formate, glycolate, isopropanol, methanol, and TMAO had the best predictive values for PTB. Additionally, the correlation analysis of these metabolites showed a strong negative correlation with GAB and CL. These metabolites could be beneficial markers for the clinical application of PTB prediction. View Full-Text
Keywords: cervicovaginal fluid; preterm birth; microbiota; metabolite; dysbiosis cervicovaginal fluid; preterm birth; microbiota; metabolite; dysbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ansari, A.; Lee, H.; You, Y.-A.; Jung, Y.; Park, S.; Kim, S.M.; Hwang, G.-S.; Kim, Y.J. Identification of Potential Biomarkers in the Cervicovaginal Fluid by Metabolic Profiling for Preterm Birth. Metabolites 2020, 10, 349.

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