Metabolic Effects of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides on Selected Commensals of the Infant Microbiome—Commensalism and Postbiotic Effects
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Agro Food Park 48, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Arla Food Ingredients, Sønderhøj 10, 8260 Viby J, Denmark
Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040167
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Microbiota Metabolism)
Oligosaccharides from human or bovine milk selectively stimulate growth or metabolism of bacteria associated with the lower gastrointestinal tract of infants. Results from complex infant-type co-cultures point toward a possible synergistic effect of combining bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) and lactose (LAC) on enhancing the metabolism of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and inhibition of Clostridium perfringens. We examine the interaction between B. longum subsp. longum and the commensal Parabacteroides distasonis, by culturing them in mono- and co-culture with different carbohydrates available. To understand the interaction between BMO and lactose on B. longum subsp. longum and test the potential postbiotic effect on C. perfringens growth and/or metabolic activity, we inoculated C. perfringens into fresh media and compared the metabolic changes to C. perfringens in cell-free supernatant from B. longum subsp. longum fermented media. In co-culture, B. longum subsp. longum benefits from P. distasonis (commensalism), especially in a lactose-rich environment. Furthermore, B. longum subsp. longum fermentation of BMO + LAC impaired C. perfringens’ ability to utilize BMO as a carbon source (potential postbiotic effect).