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Article

Benchtop Low-Frequency 60 MHz NMR Analysis of Urine: A Comparative Metabolomics Investigation

1
Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE8 9BH, UK
2
Magritek Gmbh, Philipsstraße 8, 52068 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040155
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
Metabolomics techniques are now applied in numerous fields, with the ability to provide information concerning a large number of metabolites from a single sample in a short timeframe. Although high-frequency (HF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis represents a common method of choice to perform such studies, few investigations employing low-frequency (LF) NMR spectrometers have yet been published. Herein, we apply and contrast LF and HF 1H-NMR metabolomics approaches to the study of urine samples collected from type 2 diabetic patients (T2D), and apply a comparative investigation with healthy controls. Additionally, we explore the capabilities of LF 1H-1H 2D correlation spectroscopy (COSY) experiments regarding the determination of metabolites, their resolution and associated analyses in human urine samples. T2D samples were readily distinguishable from controls, with several metabolites, particularly glucose, being associated with this distinction. Comparable results were obtained with HF and LF spectrometers. Linear correlation analyses were performed to derive relationships between the intensities of 1D and 2D resonances of several metabolites, and R2 values obtained were able to confirm these, an observation attesting to the validity of employing 2D LF experiments for future applications in metabolomics studies. Our data suggest that LF spectrometers may prove to be easy-to-use, compact and inexpensive tools to perform routine metabolomics analyses in laboratories and ‘point-of-care’ sites. Furthermore, the quality of 2D spectra obtained from these instruments in half an hour would broaden the horizon of their potential applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-frequency NMR; benchtop spectrometers; type 2 diabetes; metabolomics; 1H-1H COSY low-frequency NMR; benchtop spectrometers; type 2 diabetes; metabolomics; 1H-1H COSY
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leenders, J.; Grootveld, M.; Percival, B.; Gibson, M.; Casanova, F.; Wilson, P.B. Benchtop Low-Frequency 60 MHz NMR Analysis of Urine: A Comparative Metabolomics Investigation. Metabolites 2020, 10, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040155

AMA Style

Leenders J, Grootveld M, Percival B, Gibson M, Casanova F, Wilson PB. Benchtop Low-Frequency 60 MHz NMR Analysis of Urine: A Comparative Metabolomics Investigation. Metabolites. 2020; 10(4):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leenders, Justine, Martin Grootveld, Benita Percival, Miles Gibson, Federico Casanova, and Philippe B. Wilson 2020. "Benchtop Low-Frequency 60 MHz NMR Analysis of Urine: A Comparative Metabolomics Investigation" Metabolites 10, no. 4: 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040155

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