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Open AccessArticle

1H NMR Based Metabolomics in Human Sepsis and Healthy Serum

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Research Group of Surgery, Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Oulu University Hospital, PO. Box 21, 90029 Oulu, Finland
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Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5281, 90014 Oulu, Finland
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Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 5281, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
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Department of Applied Physics & SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Oral Diagnostics, Educational Dental Clinic, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
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Research Group of Oral Health Sciences, Oulu University Hospital, PO. Box 5000, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equal to this work.
Metabolites 2020, 10(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10020070 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Clinical Research)
Early diagnosis is essential but challenging in severe sepsis. Quantifying and comparing metabolite concentrations in serum has been suggested as a new diagnostic tool. Here we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) based metabolomics to analyze the possible differences in metabolite concentrations between sera taken from septic patients and healthy controls, as well as between sera of surviving and non-surviving sepsis patients. We took serum samples from 44 sepsis patients when the first sepsis induced organ dysfunction was found. Serum samples were also collected from 14 age and gender matched healthy controls. The samples were analyzed by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy for non-lipid metabolites. We found that the serum levels of glucose, glycine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatinine and glycoprotein acetyls (mostly alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, AGP) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sepsis compared to healthy sera, whereas citrate and histidine were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sepsis patients compared to healthy controls. We found statistically significantly higher serum lactate and citrate concentrations in non-survivors compared to 30-day survivors. According to our study, 3-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, glycine, histidine, and AGP are candidates for further studies to enable identification of phenotype association in the early stages of sepsis.
Keywords: sepsis; human serum; NMR; metabolomics; 3-hydroxybutyrate; citrate; glycine; histidine; AGP sepsis; human serum; NMR; metabolomics; 3-hydroxybutyrate; citrate; glycine; histidine; AGP
MDPI and ACS Style

Jaurila, H.; Koivukangas, V.; Koskela, M.; Gäddnäs, F.; Myllymaa, S.; Kullaa, A.; Salo, T.; Ala-Kokko, T.I. 1H NMR Based Metabolomics in Human Sepsis and Healthy Serum. Metabolites 2020, 10, 70.

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