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Open AccessArticle

Metabolomic Profiling of Fungal Pathogens Responsible for Root Rot in American Ginseng

1
London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford St., London, ON N5V 4T3, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
3
Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada
4
Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010035
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
Ginseng root is an economically valuable crop in Canada at high risk of yield loss caused by the pathogenic fungus Ilyonectria mors-panacis, formerly known as Cylindrocarpon destructans. While this pathogen has been well-characterized from morphological and genetic perspectives, little is known about the secondary metabolites it produces and their role in pathogenicity. We used an untargeted tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based approach paired with global natural products social molecular networking (GNPS) to compare the metabolite profiles of virulent and avirulent Ilyonectria strains. The ethyl acetate extracts of 22 I. mors-panacis strains and closely related species were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Principal component analysis of LC-MS features resulted in two distinct groups, which corresponded to virulent and avirulent Ilyonectria strains. Virulent strains produced more types of compounds than the avirulent strains. The previously reported I. mors-panacis antifungal compound radicicol was present. Additionally, a number of related resorcyclic acid lactones (RALs) were putatively identified, namely pochonins and several additional derivatives of radicicol. Pochonins have not been previously reported in Ilyonectria spp. and have documented antimicrobial activity. This research contributes to our understanding of I. mors-panacis natural products and its pathogenic relationship with ginseng. View Full-Text
Keywords: American ginseng; Ilyonectria; root rot; metabolomics; molecular networking; GNPS American ginseng; Ilyonectria; root rot; metabolomics; molecular networking; GNPS
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DesRochers, N.; Walsh, J.P.; Renaud, J.B.; Seifert, K.A.; Yeung, K. .-C.; Sumarah, M.W. Metabolomic Profiling of Fungal Pathogens Responsible for Root Rot in American Ginseng. Metabolites 2020, 10, 35.

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