This study aimed to explore the dynamic changes in metabolite profiles and metabolism pathways in the serum of growing pigs by intravenous infusion of sodium butyrate (SB). Fourteen crossbred growing barrows (BW = 23.70 ± 1.29 kg) fitted with jugular cannula were randomly allocated to the SB and control (Con) groups, each group consisted of seven replicates (pens), with one pig per pen. At 9:00 of each day during the experimental period, pigs in the SB group were infused with 10 mL of SB (200 mmol/L, pH 7.4, 37 °C) via precaval vein, while the Con group was treated with the same volume of physiological saline. On day 4, the blood of each pig was collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the intravenous infusion. Metabolites in the serum were detected by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Pathway analysis of metabolomic profiles showed that the differential metabolites mainly enriched in amino acid metabolism, lipid-related metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. More importantly, the relative concentrations of all eight essential amino acids, five non-essential amino acids, and two amino acid derivatives were decreased by the parenteral SB. In addition, SB significantly increased the relative concentrations of eicosanoic acid and octadecanoic acid and decreased the relative concentration of glycerol-3-phosphate at 0 min (three days after intravenous infusion of SB), which suggests that parenteral SB may increase stearates mobilization and decrease the biosynthesis of stearates. In conclusion, intravenous infusion of SB may induce more amino acids to synthesize proteins and affect fat metabolism through increasing fat mobilization and decreasing the biosynthesis of stearates. However, a further study is needed to understand the mechanism of extensive metabolic pathway changes induced by parenteral SB.
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