From the Classic Business Model to Open Innovation and Data Sharing—The Concept of an Open Car-Sharing Business Model
2. Literature Review
2.1. Classic Business Models, Open Business Models, and Open Innovation Dynamics
2.2. Car-Sharing Business Models and Open Innovation Aspects
3. Methods and Analysis
- What are the types of services provided by your company (profit, nonprofit, B2B, B2C, P2P, hybrid)?
- What type of car-sharing services does your company have (one-way car sharing, round-trip car sharing, free-floating)?
- What are the types of business motivations for the services provided in your company (e.g., car sharing for private persons, for universities, for holidays, etc.)?
- How long has your company been operating on the market?
- Have you made any changes to your business model since your company was founded?
- Have you implemented services that can be described as innovative in your company? If so, were these innovations closed or open?
- What are the risks/fears and advantages of implementing open innovation and data sharing in car-sharing systems?
- Assess the level of safety of the indicated aspects against open innovation and data sharing in car sharing.
- In your opinion, will open innovation and data sharing be important in car sharing in the near future?
- Key partners:
- C1. Who are your key partners?
- Key activities:
- C2. What key activities does your service proposition require?
- Value proposition:
- C3. What value do you deliver to the customer with your offer?
- Customer relationship:
- C4. What connections does your company have with your target customer?
- Customer segment:
- C5. Who are your most important customers?
- Key resources:
- C6. What key resources does your service require?
- Distribution channel:
- C7. What are the best distribution channels for your service?
- Cost structure:
- C8. What are the biggest costs for your company?
- Revenue stream:
- C9. What are your customers paying for now?
Car-Sharing Open Business Model
- When selecting key partners, it is worth paying attention to cooperation, not only with suppliers or business partners but also with entities that have an impact on the real functioning of car-sharing systems and affect market trends, including competition. Mutual cooperation between companies has a chance to win common interests, such as dedicated parking spaces for vehicles with car-sharing or special privileges.
- Local governments should also be a key partner for car-sharing companies. This applies both to attempts to directly reduce problems with urban transport (law, prohibitions, and orders) and to the use of indirect solutions (education, awareness of the mechanisms of changes in transport needs), and sometimes to a joint search for improvements to the life of society in cities in accordance with the principles of sustainable development.
- The value proposition in open business models should be based on the value of the customer value and community value. These aspects are the ones who should make an important contribution to the aspects that need to be improved in the services offered. These should be a key factor in creating new innovations, establish service exchange platforms, offering customer-centric marketing, and allowing customers to become a real part of the business.
- Enterprises should trust research organizations and universities and give them the possibility to access their data, e.g., on vehicles, movements and relocation. These data would allow for the performance of analyses that could support the functioning of car sharing and not pose a threat to the development of companies.
- Companies must define new rules (or improve existing ones) regarding data sharing, copyright and intellectual data policies, API sharing, and application availability. The validation of rules will allow for the development of an approach that can create the possibility of full or partial involvement in emerging MaaS initiatives or mobility accelerators, which will increase the company’s market position and influence its advertising and marketing.
- The costs of activities related to running a business must be identified as transparent and included in the cost streams of the business models of car dealers. Operating in an open model should take into account the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Business Model Archetype
|Business relation||B2B, B2C, P2P, hybrid, non-profit||[49,50,51]|
|Business motivation type||college/university|
neighborhood residential, government and institutional fleets, personal vehicle sharing, vacation/resort
|Sharing model||One-way, roundtrip, free-floating||[48,49,50,51,52]|
|Demographic Variable||Category||Quantity||Percent of Respondents|
|Job position||Chief Executive Officer||3||23%|
|Chief Operating Officer||8||62%|
|Key Account Manager||2||15%|
|Country||Quantity of Experts||Percent of Respondents|
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Turoń, K. From the Classic Business Model to Open Innovation and Data Sharing—The Concept of an Open Car-Sharing Business Model. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010036
Turoń K. From the Classic Business Model to Open Innovation and Data Sharing—The Concept of an Open Car-Sharing Business Model. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. 2022; 8(1):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010036Chicago/Turabian Style
Turoń, Katarzyna. 2022. "From the Classic Business Model to Open Innovation and Data Sharing—The Concept of an Open Car-Sharing Business Model" Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 8, no. 1: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010036