Business Innovations in the New Mobility Market during the COVID-19 with the Possibility of Open Business Model Innovation
2. Literature Review: New Mobility Business Models
- SDG 3 on health and well-being;
- SDG 7 on affordable and clean energy;
- SDG 8 on decent work and economic growth;
- SDG 9 on resilient infrastructure and innovation;
- SDG 11 on sustainable cities and communities;
- SDG 12 on sustainable consumption and production (ending fossil fuel subsidies).
- Electromobility and mobility using alternative fuels, including hydrogen fuels;
- Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS)—booking of vehicles or on-demand journeys made available through mobile applications.
- Q1: Has your company implemented new business practices because of COVID-19?
- Q2: What business areas were the practices implemented by your company related to?
- Q3: How innovative were the practices implemented by your company?
- Q4: Please describe what practices have been implemented in your company.
- Q5: Did the implemented practices bring profits for your company?
- Q6: Do you think that the implemented practices will still be present in your company after the end of the pandemic?
4.1. Desk Research Analysis: Urban Transportation Situation and Mobility Practices during the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Plans
4.1.1. Selected COVID-19 Mobility Practices in Asia
4.1.2. Selected COVID-19 Mobility Practices in Europe
4.1.3. Selected COVID-19 Mobility Practices in America
4.2. Expert Research: Business Practices during a Pandemic in New Mobility Services
5. Discussion: Open Innovation, and Business Model Innovation
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|System Type||Business Models|
|System’s Type||Number of Respondents||Country|
|Car-sharing||18||China, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Singapore, Spain, United States of America|
|Business Organizational Practices||System’s Type|
|Introduction of additional zones for system operation|
|Introduction of additional stations (parking spaces) for vehicles from the systems|
|Introduction of package services, including long-term rentals|
|Introduction of a new type of billing method to choose from, e.g., per kilometer or per minute of rental|
|Free memberships for essential workers|
|Discounted rental fee|
|Business Safety Practices||System’s Type|
|Requirement to wear masks|
|Requirement to wear protective gloves|
|Requirement to disinfect vehicles and their equipment|
|Need to open windows|
|Need to provide ventilation in the vehicle (air supply, air conditioning)|
|Requirements for washing hands or using sanitizer before and after service|
|Sharing the vehicle alone or with the same small group only|
|Vehicle disinfection after each user|
|Sitting requirements (as far as possible from the driver)|
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Turoń, K.; Kubik, A. Business Innovations in the New Mobility Market during the COVID-19 with the Possibility of Open Business Model Innovation. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030195
Turoń K, Kubik A. Business Innovations in the New Mobility Market during the COVID-19 with the Possibility of Open Business Model Innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. 2021; 7(3):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030195Chicago/Turabian Style
Turoń, Katarzyna, and Andrzej Kubik. 2021. "Business Innovations in the New Mobility Market during the COVID-19 with the Possibility of Open Business Model Innovation" Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 7, no. 3: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030195