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Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity is published by MDPI from Volume 4 Issue 2 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Springer.

J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2018) – 14 articles

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Article
Exploring institutional reform of Korean civil service pension: advocacy coalition framework, policy knowledge and social innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0089-0 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
This paper examines what factors are associated with the 2015 pension reform of Korean civil servant as social innovation. We explore what lessons we can learn from the pension reform in terms of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) model. The ACF model allows [...] Read more.
This paper examines what factors are associated with the 2015 pension reform of Korean civil servant as social innovation. We explore what lessons we can learn from the pension reform in terms of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) model. The ACF model allows us to identify how the substantial reform is, relying on policy knowledge and entrepreneurs, possible in terms of political and social consensus. It also clearly demonstrates the possibility of systematic pension reform at an appropriate level through social learning and policy learning. Through the ACF model, we review how South Korea’s civil servant pension reform act occurred at the end of May 2015. The temporal scope covers from 2009 latest reform, and the 2014’s President administrative policy speech that had strongly been showed her will to reform the pension issue to the end of May 2015 when the reform bill enacted. We investigate each advocacy coalition in order to elucidate the actors that constitute the two coalition groups and to scrutinize whether a policy broker had existed in the process. We also attempt to find the relatively stable parameters and external events that affected the reform and also the belief system that shared by two advocacy coalition group. The result clearly shows that the two coalition groups shared their normative beliefs ultimately, for example, the need to change the current civil servant’s pension system, but, the gap in the numerical change in the policy core belief and secondary belief between the two actors had seemed to be excessively large and uncompromising. A policy broker who can coordinate the interests and interests of stakeholder groups over the government pension reform proposal was desperately needed. Negotiation and leadership of the policy entrepreneurs led to a settlement of the government pension reform proposal at the end of May 2015. Their entrepreneurial activities led to an appropriate level of social consensus on the sustainable reform of pension system through policy knowledge and learning. Further research is required to explore how models of socially innovative forms of governance are created in various pension reforms across various countries. It is also required to examine how policy entrepreneurs use policy knowledge and information for a successful institutional reform through social innovation across various countries. Full article
Case Report
Collaborative workshop between client and agency for open innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0082-7 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Innovation should be promoted by effectively managing the human factors. In the past, efforts have been made aiming to innovate by utilizing either internal or external resources. In order to innovate, there needs a circumstance where ideas can overflow as many as possible, [...] Read more.
Innovation should be promoted by effectively managing the human factors. In the past, efforts have been made aiming to innovate by utilizing either internal or external resources. In order to innovate, there needs a circumstance where ideas can overflow as many as possible, and to look at the problem from various perspectives to find possible solutions. In this context, some discussions have arisen on how to effectively communicate and share ideas between client and agency. It is expected that collaborative workshop model can become an appropriate solution for this object. It is necessary to define a new relationship between client and agency conducive to solve design problems. To such a degree, collaborative workshop would be an effective method for achieving open innovation. This research was conducted on this key question - How the client and agency as collaborative partner can co-create innovation? How the collaborative workshop can influence the open innovation? What is the purpose of collaborative workshop? What is the process would be like? How the collaborative workshop can influence the relationship between client and agency? The research framework is as follows. Based on a literature review on the issue of collaborative workshop for open innovation, three case studies of collaborative workshop were conducted. With organizations like Crown Haiti, ISTN and Museum San among different backgrounds and workshop objectives, the results of their collaborative workshop and its processes have been compared and analyzed. In order to understand the process and its effects in collaborative workshops, a set of keywords that can describe all the behaviors and objectives in the process of three workshops are discovered. It is observed that all the keywords can be classified into several groups. This is compiled into four categories – enhancing common understanding, accelerating ideation, rapid testing, and sharing direction. The collaborative workshop model has brought forth that maps the goals and process of the collaborative workshop. It is necessary to concisely follow through each step at each category of the workshop. So the workshop includes the process of achieving each purpose. Full article
Article
Open innovation concept: integrating universities and business in digital age
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0091-6 - 03 Apr 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
There exists a huge amount of literature with regard to the new openness of firms or universities to trigger innovations. Among others the Triple-Helix approach conceptualizes the role of the state to fulfill the demand of social welfare. The state, universities and private [...] Read more.
There exists a huge amount of literature with regard to the new openness of firms or universities to trigger innovations. Among others the Triple-Helix approach conceptualizes the role of the state to fulfill the demand of social welfare. The state, universities and private companies together fulfill different values und function according to different rules of the game. In fact, the state disposes of the monopoly of power. Therefore, it is of interest to further elaborate the question of how the state should fulfill its role within this interplay. The purpose of the following paper is therefore to reveal firstly a corresponding research gap and to formulate an answer by referring to organizational formats. By means of a theoretically derived concept according to plausibility considerations the superiority of a network over a hierarchy governmental approach is proclaimed. Secondly, the paper highlights the new demanding and conflicting role of universities with regard to the collaboration with private business companies. Universities as a knowledge supplier fulfil a crucial role within this institutional framework and need to redefine their self-understanding as collaboration with business gains importance. Thirdly Web 2.0 applications within the framework of lifelong learning concepts are being discussed as an adequate tool to fulfil the requirements developed earlier on: The question arises in what way innovative technologies and blended learning can support learning by business people on the one hand and adapt research work of university people to the realistic demands of business on the other. In conclusion some policy implications are derived from this conceptual paper, focusing on the role of intermediary agents and innovative technologies to enhance trust relationships between the different stakeholders and seeking to add useful considerations with regard to innovation policy. The main findings deny a restrictive policy approach. Instead, rather a concept in the sense of help for self-help seems to be fruitful. By means of organizing the innovation policy throughout a sense of “Openness” towards all relevant stakeholders the impetus lies on strengthening the system from the inside. Considering the interests of the stakeholders and subsiding digital formats of learning and knowledge transfer a valuable contribution possibly could be done. Full article
Case Report
Complexity in the oil and gas industry: a study into exploration and exploitation in integrated operations
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0092-5 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
A common organizational response to the recognition of complexity is the consolidation of collaborative work forms. In the oil and gas industry, developments in communication and automation technologies have enabled the implementation of collaborative environments called integrated operations (IO). The IO concept is [...] Read more.
A common organizational response to the recognition of complexity is the consolidation of collaborative work forms. In the oil and gas industry, developments in communication and automation technologies have enabled the implementation of collaborative environments called integrated operations (IO). The IO concept is usually described as the integration of people, work processes and technology with the goal of facilitating decision-making and process optimization. This study contributes to the study of the knowledge dimension of IOs by investigating the exploitation of existing practices and the exploration of new possibilities in complex adaptive processes. Data collected through observations of practices reveal changes in patterns of interaction among oil platform operators relocated to an IO facility and the emergence of a complex interplay between exploitation and exploration. Rather than a spatial or temporal separation between the two processes, the findings illustrate an organic relation between exploration and exploration in the context of uncertainty and local adaptations in oil production. The discussion of findings provides elements to reflect upon knowledge management in the oil and gas industry. Full article
Abstract
Weak signal detecting of industry convergence using information of products and services of global listed companies - focusing on growth engine industry in South Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0083-6 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The [World Economic Forum 2016, https://www.weforum.org/events/world-economicforum- annual-meeting-2016. Accessed 5 Aug 2017] predicted that the world would face the Fourth Industrial Revolution which means innovative changes through convergence of cutting-edge information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as artificial intelligence, IoT, big data and cloud [...] Read more.
The [World Economic Forum 2016, https://www.weforum.org/events/world-economicforum- annual-meeting-2016. Accessed 5 Aug 2017] predicted that the world would face the Fourth Industrial Revolution which means innovative changes through convergence of cutting-edge information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as artificial intelligence, IoT, big data and cloud computing with conventional industries. It was forecasted that such innovation would take place across all industries and services. In particular, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has paid attention to changes in conventional traditional industries. The weak signal analysis is a method which can detect the sign of future changes at an early stage. A weak signal is defined as an advanced indicator in such changes. Therefore, its search and monitoring can be an early warning on threat and great opportunity to be prepared. To overcome the limitation of future prediction which is mostly dependent upon an expert group’s intuitive judgment, this study attempted to investigate the weak signal of convergence among industries, using knowledge structure based approaches. As new products and services can lead to convergence between industries, research data has gathered information on the products and services of global listed companies which have been established for the past 11 years. For comparative analysis, they were grouped every 5 years, and product and service trends were compared. And we detected weak signals of convergence with different industries and noticed the changes of existing industries. Historically, the convergence of industries is mainly discussed in relation to science and technology-led industries, so the industrial field that has been studied has chosen Korea’s growth engine industries, a high-tech science and technology industries. Full article
Article
Relation of R&D expense to turnover and number of listed companies in all industrial fields
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0093-4 - 21 Mar 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
In this research, we studied the relation of research and development (R&D) investment to turnover and number of listed companies by using the financial information of publicly listed enterprises in all industrial fields of the world from 2007 to 2015. First of all, [...] Read more.
In this research, we studied the relation of research and development (R&D) investment to turnover and number of listed companies by using the financial information of publicly listed enterprises in all industrial fields of the world from 2007 to 2015. First of all, the present condition (as of 2017) of number and distribution of publicly listed enterprises was investigated. Secondly, the industrial areas having top 10 average turnovers and R&D expenses during 9 years (2007 ~ 2015) were analyzed by using their descriptive statistics and CAGR values. Finally, the analyses of correlation and linear regression were performed by using average R&D expense (independent variable) and average turnover or the number of listed enterprises (dependent variables). In other words, two models with different combination of independent and dependent variables (Model A: R&D expense and turnover, Model B: R&D expense and number of listed firms) were developed for the statistical analyses. As a result, it was confirmed that both the turnover and the number of listed companies were influenced by the R&D investment because the coefficients of determination for Model A and Model B were 0.686 and 0.612, respectively (both pvalues < 2.2 × 10− 16). From the results of this study, it is expected that the unlisted firms (e.g., start-up companies) can build the basis of their growth and innovation when they invest in R&D higher inducing the increases in (1) turnover and (2) probability of becoming a listed firm. Thus, the financial information of enterprises can be utilized effectively as the quantitative evidence in order to develop the research model and methodology related to their growth and innovation. Full article
Article
Enhancing green loyalty towards apparel retail stores: A cross-generational analysis on an emerging market
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0090-7 - 16 Mar 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Faced with an array of scandals and challenges caused by environmental pollution and exploitation of workers, apparel retailers are often compelled to re-think their strategies in compliance with environmental governance, and to implement specific measures aimed at environmental protection and preserving resources. By [...] Read more.
Faced with an array of scandals and challenges caused by environmental pollution and exploitation of workers, apparel retailers are often compelled to re-think their strategies in compliance with environmental governance, and to implement specific measures aimed at environmental protection and preserving resources. By adopting green-based strategies to reach their target segments, retailers seek not only to capture the attention of different consumer generations, but also to inspire loyalty and encourage them to re-visit stores. Based on the generational theory and by means of quantitative research addressing four consumer generations in an emerging market, the authors highlight the extent to which clothing retailers are able, by adopting green strategies and consistently implementing environmental protection actions, to attract mainly young consumers to their stores, encouraging the sharing of peer recommendations, increasing purchasing behaviour and invoking loyalty. The article highlights the contribution of green marketing strategies in developing consumer loyalty in an emerging market by offering retailers the possibility of deepening their understanding when approaching different consumer generations. Full article
Article
Blockchain government - a next form of infrastructure for the twenty-first century
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0086-3 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
Today, more than 100 blockchain projects created to transform government systems are being conducted in more than 30 countries. What leads countries rapidly initiate blockchain projects? I argue that it is because blockchain is a technology directly related to social organization; Unlike other [...] Read more.
Today, more than 100 blockchain projects created to transform government systems are being conducted in more than 30 countries. What leads countries rapidly initiate blockchain projects? I argue that it is because blockchain is a technology directly related to social organization; Unlike other technologies, a consensus mechanism form the core of blockchain. Traditionally, consensus is not the domain of machines but rather humankind. However, blockchain operates through a consensus algorithm with human intervention; once that consensus is made, it cannot be modified or forged. Through utilization of Lawrence Lessig’s proposition that “Code is law,” I suggest that blockchain creates “absolute law” that cannot be violated. This characteristic of blockchain makes it possible to implement social technology that can replace existing social apparatuses including bureaucracy. In addition, there are three close similarities between blockchain and bureaucracy. First, both of them are defined by the rules and execute predetermined rules. Second, both of them work as information processing machines for society. Third, both of them work as trust machines for society. Therefore, I posit that it is possible and moreover unavoidable to replace bureaucracy with blockchain systems. In conclusion, I suggest five principles that should be adhered to when we replace bureaucracy with the blockchain system: 1) introducing Blockchain Statute law; 2) transparent disclosure of data and source code; 3) implementing autonomous executing administration; 4) building a governance system based on direct democracy and 5) making Distributed Autonomous Government(DAG). Full article
Case Report
Determining performance criteria of railway market: a case study
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0084-5 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
This paper classifies a case study on railway clusters allowing analysis of competitiveness performance criteria including the innovation capability of industries via different models. Data are collected from the Turkish railway industrial cluster; where 130 companies are located. Porters’ industries Life Cycle Evolution, [...] Read more.
This paper classifies a case study on railway clusters allowing analysis of competitiveness performance criteria including the innovation capability of industries via different models. Data are collected from the Turkish railway industrial cluster; where 130 companies are located. Porters’ industries Life Cycle Evolution, Diamond, Five Forces Models and SWOT Analysis are applied to explore which criteria influence at most on the cluster companies’ competitiveness performances and innovation capability based on operational conditions. Porter’s Life Cycle analysis showed that the cluster is between introduction and growth phase. This phase has typical characteristics such as high investment demand on R&D, lack of qualified staff which could be compared to the performance criteria evaluated from the other three models. Another aim was to research the consistency and difference between the applied different dimension scaled models. Delivery time of the suppliers, qualified staff, capital range of the companies and physical enlargement area of the production plants were found to be the most important criteria in operational view of the competitiveness. Another result is that the applied tools are producing similar and consistent results independently from their dimension scales. Full article
Article
Knowledge-based, smart and sustainable cities: a provocation for a conceptual framework
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0087-2 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
The smart and sustainable cities concept has become a globally hot topic during the last few decades, particularly following the catastrophic impacts of global climate change. The assessment of smart and sustainable cities, however, is a major challenge due to complex, complicated, and [...] Read more.
The smart and sustainable cities concept has become a globally hot topic during the last few decades, particularly following the catastrophic impacts of global climate change. The assessment of smart and sustainable cities, however, is a major challenge due to complex, complicated, and chaotic nature of our cities. This makes the available monitoring and evaluation tools difficult to adopt and apply in different urban contexts to support urban planning and governance and foster evidence-based policymaking. In order to address this issue, the paper brings together knowledge-based development concept with smart and sustainable cities. Knowledge-based development is a vision of development that considers knowledge as the central structuring element of a development strategy. Similarly, its more territory focused version, knowledge-based urban development is an integrated approach for the transition of cities and regions into sustainable, liveable and prosperous localities. The methodological approach of the paper includes the review of the literature on existing approaches on smart and sustainable cities assessment, describing their main aspects, strengths and limitations, and discuss the potential contribution of a knowledge-based urban development strategy for the successful promotion of smart and sustainable cities, presented in a proposed conceptual framework. Full article
Article
The role of problem solving ability on innovative behavior and opportunity recognition in university students
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0085-4 - 05 Feb 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Universities engage in entrepreneurship education to increase social value creation, through students’ new opportunities recognition. However, there are not enough of empirical researches on whether the current entrepreneurship education can be differentiated from other curriculum to improve the opportunity recognition process. This study [...] Read more.
Universities engage in entrepreneurship education to increase social value creation, through students’ new opportunities recognition. However, there are not enough of empirical researches on whether the current entrepreneurship education can be differentiated from other curriculum to improve the opportunity recognition process. This study argues that it is very important for cognitive abilities to be manifested as behavior when students in university are new opportunities recognition. For this purpose, the relationship between problem solving ability, innovation behavior, and opportunity perception was verified empirically. This study was conducted on 203 students who took entrepreneurship education courses at Korean universities. The results of this study showed that problem solving ability positively influenced innovation behavior and opportunity perception. Innovation behavior was identified as a key parameter that partially mediated the relationship between problem solving ability and innovation behavior. The implication of this study is to prove the relationship between individual ‘s problem - solving ability considering the characteristics of education in Korea and the opportunity through innovative behavior and various learning strategies to help entrepreneurship education to design better courses for the future It has important implications for strategic pedagogy that can enhance behavioral elements in development. Full article
Article
About relationship between business text patterns and financial performance in corporate data
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0080-9 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
This study uses text and data mining to investigate the relationship between the text patterns of annual reports published by US listed companies and sales performance. Taking previous research a step further, although annual reports show only past and present financial information, analyzing [...] Read more.
This study uses text and data mining to investigate the relationship between the text patterns of annual reports published by US listed companies and sales performance. Taking previous research a step further, although annual reports show only past and present financial information, analyzing text content can identify sentences or patterns that indicate the future business performance of a company. First, we examine the relation pattern between business risk factors and current business performance. For this purpose, we select companies belonging to two categories of US SIC (Standard Industry Classification) in the IT sector, 7370 and 7373, which include Twitter, Facebook, Google, Yahoo, etc. We manually collect sales and business risk information for a total of 54 companies that submitted an annual report (Form 10-K) for the last three years in these two categories. To establish a correlation between patterns of text and sales performance, four hypotheses were set and tested. To verify the hypotheses, statistical analysis of sales, statistical analysis of text sentences, sentiment analysis of sentences, clustering, dendrogram visualization, keyword extraction, and word-cloud visualization techniques are used. The results show that text length has some correlation with sales performance, and that patterns of frequently appearing words are correlated with the sales performance. However, a sentiment analysis indicates that the positive or negative tone of a report is not related to sales performance. Full article
Other
Multilevel prognosis of logistics chains in case of uncertainty: information and statistical technologies implementation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-018-0081-8 - 29 Jan 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Effective, strategic, current and operational management of modern logistics systems requires continuous monitoring and forecasting of their condition in many parameters. Especially these questions are critical in justifying the need for modernization or technical re-equipment of the logistics chains, when the issue for [...] Read more.
Effective, strategic, current and operational management of modern logistics systems requires continuous monitoring and forecasting of their condition in many parameters. Especially these questions are critical in justifying the need for modernization or technical re-equipment of the logistics chains, when the issue for the evaluation of its technical and economic potential is relevant. It can be concluded that there is the need to study the issues of formation of scientifically based logistics solutions. Moreover, by analogy with the systems theory in engineering, it comes to research of the effectiveness of these decisions in conditions of limited, incomplete and often inaccurate information. In general, investment decision on logistics chain modernization is an evaluation of the proposed alternatives for the manager using a set of indicators. It seems to be appropriate to use a method of the potential distribution of probabilities when manager know only the data of relevant characteristics of the logistics chain projects. The application of the method is presented and it is shown that the quantitative estimates calculated by this method are relative and strongly depend on the choice of the base project. Full article
Article
Comparing validity of risk measures on newsvendor models in open innovation perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-017-0078-8 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
In the era of Industry 4.0, firms are facing with greater uncertainty. Accordingly, it is important to select quality risk measures to analyze newsvendor problems under risk. Then, open innovation can be a good remedial option for such risk-averse newsvendors because open innovation [...] Read more.
In the era of Industry 4.0, firms are facing with greater uncertainty. Accordingly, it is important to select quality risk measures to analyze newsvendor problems under risk. Then, open innovation can be a good remedial option for such risk-averse newsvendors because open innovation can offset the profit losses from risk aversion by sharing revenues in supply chains. To find such risk measures in newsvendor problems, we review various risk measures of risk-averse inventory models and existing articles in inventory management literature. Then we provide a logical reasoning and axiomatic framework to evaluate validity of each risk measure in newsvendor problems - consistency to the four axioms in coherent risk measures. In this framework, the underlying assumptions and managerial insights to the newsvendor problems are examined for each risk measure. Consequently, exponential utility function and coherent measures of risk are selected as two plausible risk measures to analyze multi-product risk-averse newsvendor models. Full article
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