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Article

Polymorphism Analysis of pfmdr1 and pfcrt from Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Northwestern Nigeria Revealed the Major Markers Associated with Antimalarial Resistance

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina PMB 5001, Nigeria
2
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Nigeria
3
Laboratory Department, Public Health and Diagnostic Institute, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kwanar Dawaki, Kano PMB 3220, Nigeria
4
Centre for Biotechnology Research, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Nigeria
5
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine LSTM, Pembroke Place L3 5QA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2021, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9010006
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
Suspicion of failure in the effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapies (currently the first-line treatment of malaria, worldwide) is leading to the unofficial use of alternative antimalarials, including chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, across northern Nigeria. To facilitate evidence-based resistance management, antimalarial resistance mutations were investigated in Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (pfmdr1) and chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), in isolates from Kano, northwestern Nigeria. Out of the 88 samples genotyped for pfmdr1 N86Y mutation using PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism, one sample contained the 86Y mutation (86Yfrequency = 1.14%). The analysis of 610 bp fragments of pfmdr1 from 16 isolates revealed two polymorphic sites and low haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.492), with only 86 Y mutations in one isolate, and 184 F replacements in five isolates (184Ffrequency = 31.25%). The analysis of 267 bp fragments of pfcrt isolates revealed high polymorphism (Hd = 0.719), with six haplotypes and seven non-synonymous polymorphic sites. Eleven isolates (61.11%) were chloroquine-resistant, CQR (C72V73I74E75T76 haplotype), two of which had an additional mutation, D57E. An additional sequence was CQR, but of the C72V73M74E75T76 haplotype, while the rest of the sequences (33.33%) were chloroquine susceptible (C72V73M74N75K76 haplotype). The findings of these well characterized resistance markers should be considered when designing resistance management strategies in the northwestern Nigeria. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum; pfmdr1; pfcrt; mutation; antimalarial; resistance; Nigeria Plasmodium falciparum; pfmdr1; pfcrt; mutation; antimalarial; resistance; Nigeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adam, R.; Mukhtar, M.M.; Abubakar, U.F.; Damudi, H.A.; Muhammad, A.; Ibrahim, S.S. Polymorphism Analysis of pfmdr1 and pfcrt from Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Northwestern Nigeria Revealed the Major Markers Associated with Antimalarial Resistance. Diseases 2021, 9, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9010006

AMA Style

Adam R, Mukhtar MM, Abubakar UF, Damudi HA, Muhammad A, Ibrahim SS. Polymorphism Analysis of pfmdr1 and pfcrt from Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Northwestern Nigeria Revealed the Major Markers Associated with Antimalarial Resistance. Diseases. 2021; 9(1):6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adam, Ruqayya, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Umar F. Abubakar, Hajara A. Damudi, Abdullahi Muhammad, and Sulaiman S. Ibrahim. 2021. "Polymorphism Analysis of pfmdr1 and pfcrt from Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Northwestern Nigeria Revealed the Major Markers Associated with Antimalarial Resistance" Diseases 9, no. 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9010006

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