Despite significant improvements in morbidity and mortality with current evidence-based pharmaceutical-based treatment of heart failure (HF) over the previous decades, the burden of HF remains high. An alternative approach is currently being developed, which targets myocardial energy efficiency and the dysfunction of the cardiac mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggests that the insufficient availability of ATP to the failing myocardium can be attributed to abnormalities in the myocardial utilisation of its substrates rather than an overall lack of substrate availability. Therefore, the development of potential metabolic therapeutics has commenced including trimetazidine, ranolazine and perhexiline, as well as specific mitochondrial-targeting pharmaceuticals, such as elamipretide. Large randomised controlled trials are required to confirm the role of metabolic-modulating drugs in the treatment of heart failure, but early studies have been promising in their possible efficacy for the management of heart failure in the future.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited