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Diseases 2015, 3(3), 136-149;

The Gluten-Free Diet in the 3rd Millennium: Rules, Risks and Opportunities

Section of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Academic Editor: Stefano Guandalini
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Celiac Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [676 KB, uploaded 13 July 2015]


The gluten-free diet has long been considered the standard treatment for celiac disease. However, a significant number of patients continue to experience persistent symptoms despite following a gluten-free diet. Inadvertent gluten ingestion, fermentable carbohydrates, cross-contamination, and social or financial burdens present obstacles to maintaining a gluten-free diet. Proper diet education and follow-up by an expert Registered Dietitian (RD) is essential to ensure adequate nutrition on the gluten-free diet. Patients may experience unintended weight gain or elevated cholesterol levels after initiating the gluten-free diet due to adequate absorption and healing of the intestines. This review deals with the evolving gluten-free diet, optimal recommendations while considering the overall health of patients, and multi-factorial aspects of the permanent lifestyle change. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free; diet; celiac disease; nutrition; cross-contamination gluten-free; diet; celiac disease; nutrition; cross-contamination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Welstead, L. The Gluten-Free Diet in the 3rd Millennium: Rules, Risks and Opportunities. Diseases 2015, 3, 136-149.

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