A Detection Approach Using LSTM-CNN for Object Removal Caused by Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting
Beijing Key Lab of Intelligent Telecommunication Software and Multimedia, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050858
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
Exemplar-based image inpainting technology is a “double-edged sword”. It can not only restore the integrity of image by inpainting damaged or removed regions, but can also tamper with the image by using the pixels around the object region to fill in the gaps left by object removal. Through the research and analysis, it is found that the existing exemplar-based image inpainting forensics methods generally have the following disadvantages: the abnormal similar patches are time-consuming and inaccurate to search, have a high false alarm rate and a lack of robustness to multiple post-processing combined operations. In view of the above shortcomings, a detection method based on long short-term memory (LSTM)-convolutional neural network (CNN) for image object removal is proposed. In this method, CNN is used to search for abnormal similar patches. Because of CNN’s strong learning ability, it improves the speed and accuracy of the search. The LSTM network is used to eliminate the influence of false alarm patches on detection results and reduce the false alarm rate. A filtering module is designed to eliminate the attack of post-processing operation. Experimental results show that the method has a high accuracy, and can resist the attack of post-processing combination operations. It can achieve a better performance than the state-of-the-art approaches.