Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitance within field effect transistors are of great interest in terahertz (THz) imaging, as they permit high-sensitivity, high-resolution detection of chemical species and images using integrated circuit technology. High-frequency detection based on MOS technology has long been justified using a mechanism described by the plasma wave detection theory. The present study introduces a new interpretation of this effect based on the self-mixing process that occurs in the field effect depletion region, rather than that within the channel of the transistor. The proposed model formulates the THz modulation mechanisms of the charge in the potential barrier below the oxide based on the hydrodynamic semiconductor equations solved for the small-signal approximation. This approach explains the occurrence of the self-mixing process, the detection capability of the structure and, in particular, its frequency dependence. The dependence of the rectified voltage on the bias gate voltage, substrate doping, and frequency is derived, offering a new explanation for several previous experimental results. Harmonic balance simulations are presented and compared with the model results, fully validating the model’s implementation. Thus, the proposed model substantially improves the current understanding of THz rectification in semiconductors and provides new tools for the design of detectors.
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