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Review

Automated Driving: A Literature Review of the Take over Request in Conditional Automation

1
Chair ITS-Sustainable Transport Logistics 4.0, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz, Austria
2
Computer Science Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Spain
3
IAV France S.A.S.U., 4, Rue Guynemer, 78280 Guyancourt, France
4
IAV GmbH Entwicklungszentrum, Carnotstraße 1, 10587 Berlin, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122087
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 29 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Vehicles Technology)
In conditional automation (level 3), human drivers can hand over the Driving Dynamic Task (DDT) to the Automated Driving System (ADS) and only be ready to resume control in emergency situations, allowing them to be engaged in non-driving related tasks (NDRT) whilst the vehicle operates within its Operational Design Domain (ODD). Outside the ODD, a safe transition process from the ADS engaged mode to manual driving should be initiated by the system through the issue of an appropriate Take Over Request (TOR). In this case, the driver’s state plays a fundamental role, as a low attention level might increase driver reaction time to take over control of the vehicle. This paper summarizes and analyzes previously published works in the field of conditional automation and the TOR process. It introduces the topic in the appropriate context describing as well a variety of concerns that are associated with the TOR. It also provides theoretical foundations on implemented designs, and report on concrete examples that are targeted towards designers and the general public. Moreover, it compiles guidelines and standards related to automation in driving and highlights the research gaps that need to be addressed in future research, discussing also approaches and limitations and providing conclusions. View Full-Text
Keywords: conditional automation; take over request; human–machine interface; automated driving conditional automation; take over request; human–machine interface; automated driving
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morales-Alvarez, W.; Sipele, O.; Léberon, R.; Tadjine, H.H.; Olaverri-Monreal, C. Automated Driving: A Literature Review of the Take over Request in Conditional Automation. Electronics 2020, 9, 2087. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122087

AMA Style

Morales-Alvarez W, Sipele O, Léberon R, Tadjine HH, Olaverri-Monreal C. Automated Driving: A Literature Review of the Take over Request in Conditional Automation. Electronics. 2020; 9(12):2087. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morales-Alvarez, Walter, Oscar Sipele, Régis Léberon, Hadj H. Tadjine, and Cristina Olaverri-Monreal. 2020. "Automated Driving: A Literature Review of the Take over Request in Conditional Automation" Electronics 9, no. 12: 2087. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122087

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