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An Urban Autodriving Algorithm Based on a Sensor-Weighted Integration Field with Deep Learning

Department of Robotics engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea
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Electronics 2020, 9(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010158
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Vehicles Technology)
This paper proposes two algorithms for adaptive driving in urban environments: the first uses vision deep learning, which is named the sparse spatial convolutional neural network (SSCNN); and the second uses a sensor integration algorithm, named the sensor-weighted integration field (SWIF). These algorithms utilize three kinds of sensors, namely vision, Light Detection and Range (LiDAR), and GPS sensors, and decide critical motions for autonomous vehicle, such as steering angles and vehicle speed. SSCNN, which is used for lane recognition, has 2.7 times faster processing speed than the existing spatial CNN method. Additionally, the dataset for SSCNN was constructed by considering both normal and abnormal driving in 7 classes. Thus, lanes can be recognized by extending lanes for special characteristics in urban settings, in which the lanes can be obscured or erased, or the vehicle can drive in any direction. SWIF generates a two-dimensional matrix, in which elements are weighted by integrating both the object data from LiDAR and waypoints from GPS based on detected lanes. These weights are the integers, indicating the degree of safety. Based on the field formed by SWIF, the safe trajectories for two vehicles’ motions, steering angles, and vehicle speed are generated by applying the cost field. Additionally, to flexibly follow the desired steering angle and vehicle speed, the Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control is moderated by an integral anti-windup scheme. Consequently, as the dataset considers characteristics of the urban environment, SSCNN is able to be adopted for lane recognition on urban roads. The SWIF algorithm is also useful for flexible driving owing to the high efficiency of its sensor integration, including having a resolution of 2 cm per pixel and speed of 24 fps. Thus, a vehicle can be successfully maneuvered with minimized steering angle change, without lane or route departure, and without obstacle collision in the presence of diverse disturbances in urban road conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous driving; sensor integration; SWIF; vision deep learning; SSCNN; lane recognition; obstacle detection; maneuvering control autonomous driving; sensor integration; SWIF; vision deep learning; SSCNN; lane recognition; obstacle detection; maneuvering control
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Oh, M.; Cha, B.; Bae, I.; Choi, G.; Lim, Y. An Urban Autodriving Algorithm Based on a Sensor-Weighted Integration Field with Deep Learning. Electronics 2020, 9, 158.

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