Next Article in Journal
Ad-Hoc Shallow Neural Network to Learn Hyper Filtered PhotoPlethysmoGraphic (PPG) Signal for Efficient Car-Driver Drowsiness Monitoring
Previous Article in Journal
Low Altitude Measurement Accuracy Improvement of the Airborne FMCW Radio Altimeters
Open AccessArticle

Biological Viral Infection Watermarking Architecture of MPEG/H.264/AVC/HEVC

Department of Land, Water and Environment Research, KICT, Daehwa-dong, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang-si 10223, Korea
Department of Information Security, Tongmyong University, Yongdang-dong, Nam-gu, Busan 48520, Korea
Institute of Image and Cultural Contents, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea
Department of IT Convergence and Application Engineering, Pukyong National University, Nam-gu, Busan 608737, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 889;
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
PDF [3126 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]
  |     |  


This paper addresses the viral infectious watermarking (VIW) model using biological virus infection for a new-paradigm of video copyright protection of MPEG/H.264/AVC/HEVC. Our model aims to spread or infect the watermark to different codecs each time video contents are copied, edited, or transcoded. Thus, we regard the watermark as the infectious virus, the video content as the host, and the video codec as the contagion medium and then model pathogen, mutant, and contagion as the infectious watermark. Then, we define the techniques of viral infectious watermark generation, kernel-based VIW, and content-based VIW. Furthermore, we present a reversible VIW for fast infection in VIW model. This makes the video quality and strength be adaptively controlled in the infectious process. Experiment results verified that our VIW model can detect or recover the reversible watermark without loss in different codecs and also can maintain the quality of video content that is recovered to the same bit rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral infectious watermarking; video copyright protection; biological virus modeling; kernel-based watermarking; content-based watermarking viral infectious watermarking; video copyright protection; biological virus modeling; kernel-based watermarking; content-based watermarking

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, B.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, Y.-S.; Kwon, K.-R. Biological Viral Infection Watermarking Architecture of MPEG/H.264/AVC/HEVC. Electronics 2019, 8, 889.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top