Next Article in Journal
SARM: Salah Activities Recognition Model Based on Smartphone
Previous Article in Journal
A Dual-Band Compact Metamaterial Absorber with Fractal Geometry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Underwater Robot Detection System Based on Fish’s Lateral Line
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

A Signaling-Free Underwater Code Division Multiple Access Scheme

School of Electronics Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 880;
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Communication and Networking Systems)
PDF [1753 KB, uploaded 8 August 2019]


In this paper, we propose an underwater code division multiple access system where each sensor node independently evaluates whether a channel is available or not without control message exchanges with a central data-gathering node named a sink. A sensor node is able to estimate how large power is currently received at a sink in the distance based on the overheard power at the node from neighbors. If the estimated power is below a certain threshold level, the sensor node is allowed to transmit data in a p-persistent manner, where the probability p depends on the available capacity. Simulation results show the traffic estimation works well as demonstrated by a success probability of approximately 100%, and the data throughput improves in most of the offered traffic region because of the removal of the control signaling related to channel allocation. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater acoustic sensor networks; code division multiple access; multiple access control underwater acoustic sensor networks; code division multiple access; multiple access control

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, B.-M.; Cho, J.; Cho, H.-S. A Signaling-Free Underwater Code Division Multiple Access Scheme. Electronics 2019, 8, 880.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top