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Open AccessArticle

Methods for Large-Scale Time-Triggered Network Scheduling

School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, 72123 Västerås, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 738;
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Industrial Communication)
PDF [684 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]


Future cyber–physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus, requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time by up to two orders of magnitude. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time networks; scheduling; time-triggered; SMT solvers; cyber-physical systems real-time networks; scheduling; time-triggered; SMT solvers; cyber-physical systems

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Pozo, F.; Rodriguez-Navas, G.; Hansson, H. Methods for Large-Scale Time-Triggered Network Scheduling. Electronics 2019, 8, 738.

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