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A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Evacuating People in Confined Spaces

1 and 2,3,*
Beijing Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering, College of Metropolitan Transportation, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Institute of Theoretical & Applied Informatics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IITIS-PAN), Bałtycka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Imperial College London, London SW7 2BT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 711;
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
PDF [2984 KB, uploaded 23 June 2019]


The frequency, destruction and costs of natural and human-made disasters in modern highly-populated societies have resulted in research on emergency evacuation and wayfinding, which has drawn considerable attention. The subject is now a multidisciplinary area of research where information and communication technologies (ICT), and in particular the Internet of Things (IoT), have a significant impact on sensing and computing dynamic reactions that mitigate or prevent the worst outcomes of disasters. This paper offers state-of-the-art knowledge in this area so as to share ongoing research results, identify the research gaps and address the need for future research. We present a comprehensive review of research on emergency evacuation and wayfinding, focusing on the algorithmic and system design aspects. Starting from the history of emergency management research, we identify the emerging challenges concerning system optimisation, evacuee behaviour optimisation and data analysis, and the additional energy consumption by ICT equipment that operates the emergency management infrastructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: emergency management; evacuation wayfinding; systemic review emergency management; evacuation wayfinding; systemic review

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bi, H.; Gelenbe, E. A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Evacuating People in Confined Spaces. Electronics 2019, 8, 711.

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