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Open AccessCommunication

A Design Methodology and Analysis for Transformer-Based Class-E Power Amplifier

1,2,*, 1,2, 1 and 3,*
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Singapore 738406, Singapore
School of Microelectronics, Tianjin University of China, Tianjin 300027, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 494;
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
PDF [804 KB, uploaded 2 May 2019]


This paper proposes a new technique and design methodology on a transformer-based Class-E complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) power amplifier (PA) with only one transformer and two capacitors in the load network. An analysis of this amplifier is presented together with an accurate and simple design procedure. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The following performance parameters are determined for optimum operation: The current and voltage waveform, the peak value of drain current and drain-to-source voltage, the output power, the efficiency and the component values of the load network are determined to be essential for optimum operation. The measured drain efficiency (DE) and power-added efficiency (PAE) is over 70% with 10-dBm output power at 2.4 GHz, using a 65 nm CMOS process technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Class-E; transformer-based; silicon CMOS; wireless communication; power amplifier Class-E; transformer-based; silicon CMOS; wireless communication; power amplifier

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lim, A.; Tan, A.; Kong, Z.-H.; Ma, K. A Design Methodology and Analysis for Transformer-Based Class-E Power Amplifier. Electronics 2019, 8, 494.

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