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Open AccessArticle

Complex Wavelet-Based Image Watermarking with the Human Visual Saliency Model

1
School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shangrao Normal University, Shangrao 334001, China
2
School of Information and Software Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China
3
Department of Network Engineering, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121462
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 24 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
Imperceptibility and robustness are the two complementary, but fundamental requirements of any digital image watermarking method. To improve the invisibility and robustness of multiplicative image watermarking, a complex wavelet based watermarking algorithm is proposed by using the human visual texture masking and visual saliency model. First, image blocks with high entropy are selected as the watermark embedding space to achieve imperceptibility. Then, an adaptive multiplicative watermark embedding strength factor is designed by utilizing texture masking and visual saliency to enhance robustness. Furthermore, the complex wavelet coefficients of the low frequency sub-band are modeled by a Gaussian distribution, and a watermark decoding method is proposed based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Finally, the effectiveness of the watermarking is validated by using the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) through experiments. Simulation results demonstrate the invisibility of the proposed method and its strong robustness against various attacks, including additive noise, image filtering, JPEG compression, amplitude scaling, rotation attack, and combinational attack. View Full-Text
Keywords: image watermarking; visual saliency; image entropy; dual tree complex wavelet transform; structural similarity image watermarking; visual saliency; image entropy; dual tree complex wavelet transform; structural similarity
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Liu, J.; Rao, Y.; Huang, Y. Complex Wavelet-Based Image Watermarking with the Human Visual Saliency Model. Electronics 2019, 8, 1462.

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