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Open AccessArticle

Life Cycle Assessment of Lighting Systems and Light Loss Factor: A Case Study for Indoor Workplaces in France

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LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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LERASS (Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherches Appliquées en Sciences Sociales), Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111278
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been used to evaluate the performance of the following lighting systems: compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, and fluorescent tubes (T5 type). This work covers the singularity of the French electricity mix for indoor workplaces lighting and describes the best strategy for lamp replacement. We have defined the light loss factor to integrate the following additional parameters: lumen depreciation, dirt accumulation, and risks of failure. Therefore, we propose a new definition of the functional unit (maintained megalumen hour), and we conduct this assessment to be compliant with the standards of lighting system equipment (NF EN 12464-1). Unlike previous studies, we observed that the manufacturing phase is the most impacting over the whole life cycle, thus making the extension of LED lamps’ lifetime a more effective strategy to reduce the potential environmental impacts than increasing their efficacy. This paper highlights how the light loss factor affects the LCA results and proves that it should be taken into account for subsequent assessments. Finally, this new approach includes the real usage of the lamps in the study and contributes to lay the foundation for life cycle sustainability assessment to also evaluate the economic, social, and human impacts of lighting. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA); light-emitting diode (LED); indoor lighting; functional unit; light loss factor (LLF); maintained lumen output (M-lmO) life cycle assessment (LCA); light-emitting diode (LED); indoor lighting; functional unit; light loss factor (LLF); maintained lumen output (M-lmO)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bertin, K.; Canale, L.; Ben Abdellah, O.; Méquignon, M.-A.; Zissis, G. Life Cycle Assessment of Lighting Systems and Light Loss Factor: A Case Study for Indoor Workplaces in France. Electronics 2019, 8, 1278.

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