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Electronics 2018, 7(9), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090181

Chitosan-Based Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Alcohol Sensing

1
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Nanomaterial Research Group, Universitas Gadjah, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract

Short-chain alcohols are a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are often found in workplaces and laboratories, as well as medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Real-time monitoring of alcohol vapors is essential because exposure to alcohol vapors with concentrations of 0.15–0.30 mg·L−1 may be harmful to human health. This study aims to improve the detection capabilities of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based sensors for the analysis of alcohol vapors. The active layer of chitosan was immobilized onto the QCM substrate through a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Before alcohol analysis, the QCM sensing chip was exposed to humidity because water vapor significantly interferes with QCM gas sensing. The prepared QCM sensor chip was tested for the detection of four different alcohols: n-propanol, ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, and n-amyl alcohol. For comparison, a non-alcohol of acetone was also tested. The prepared QCM sensing chip is selective to alcohols because of hydrogen bond formation between the hydroxyl groups of chitosan and the analyte. The highest response was achieved when the QCM sensing chip was exposed to n-amyl alcohol vapor, with a sensitivity of about 4.4 Hz·mg−1·L. Generally, the sensitivity of the QCM sensing chip is dependent on the molecular weight of alcohol. Moreover, the developed QCM sensing chips are stable after 10 days of repeated measurements, with a rapid response time of only 26 s. The QCM sensing chip provides an alternative method to established analytical methods such as gas chromatography for the detection of short-chain alcohol vapors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quartz crystal microbalances; chitosan; L-cysteine; self-assembled monolayer; alcohol compounds Quartz crystal microbalances; chitosan; L-cysteine; self-assembled monolayer; alcohol compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Triyana, K.; Sembiring, A.; Rianjanu, A.; Hidayat, S.N.; Riowirawan, R.; Julian, T.; Kusumaatmaja, A.; Santoso, I.; Roto, R. Chitosan-Based Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Alcohol Sensing. Electronics 2018, 7, 181.

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