The development of Smart Grid systems has proven to be a challenging task. Besides the inherent technical complexity, the involvement of different stakeholders from different disciplines is a major challenge. In order to maintain the strict security requirements, holistic systems engineering concepts and reference architectures are required that enable the integration, maintenance and evaluation of Smart Grid security. In this paper, a conceptual approach is presented on how to enable the integration of security by design in the development of Smart Grid Systems. A major cornerstone of this approach is the development of a domain-specific and standards-based modelling language on basis of the M/490 Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM). Furthermore, this modelling approach is utilized to develop a reference architecture model on basis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Logical Reference Model (LRM) with its integrated security concepts. The availability of a standards-based reference architecture model enables the instantiation of particular solutions with a profound basis for security. Moreover, it is demonstrated how such architecture models can be utilized to gain insights into potential security implications and furthermore can serve as a basis for implementation.
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