# Interacting Multiple Model for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Battery Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum Circuit Model and Parameter Identification

#### 2.1. Equivalent Circuit Model of Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum

#### 2.2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum Equivalent Circuit Model Parameter Identification Method

#### 2.3. Verification Based on the Accuracy of the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Model

## 3. Interactive Multi-Model Algorithm Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum Model

## 4. Experimental Study Based on Interactive Multi-Model SOC Estimation Model

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 8.**Discharge curve of the battery under three cycle times [23].

**Figure 10.**Battery discharge current, terminal voltage, and SOC under BBST conditions. (

**a**) Battery discharge current under BBST conditions. (

**b**) Battery terminal voltage under BBST conditions. (

**c**) Battery SOC under BBST conditions.

**Figure 11.**SOC estimation results. (

**a**) SOC estimation curves of multi-model and each single-model. (

**b**) SOC estimation curves of multi-model and Model 3.

**Figure 12.**Weights curve of different battery models. (

**a**) Weight curve of battery Model 1. (

**b**) Weight curve of battery Model 2. (

**c**) Weight curve of battery Model 3.

Model | Number of Cycles | Capacity (mAh) | SOH (%) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0 | 1400 | 100 |

2 | 300 | 1278 | 91.3 |

3 | 500 | 1095 | 78.2 |

Model | ${\mathit{R}}_{0}$ (Ω) | ${\mathit{R}}_{1}$ (Ω) | ${\mathit{C}}_{1}$ (F) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.0263 | 0.0042 | 0.1977 |

2 | 0.0275 | 0.0069 | 0.1696 |

3 | 0.0281 | 0.0095 | 0.1468 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Huang, C.; Wu, H.; Li, Z.; Li, R.; Sun, H.
Interacting Multiple Model for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. *Electronics* **2023**, *12*, 808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040808

**AMA Style**

Huang C, Wu H, Li Z, Li R, Sun H.
Interacting Multiple Model for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. *Electronics*. 2023; 12(4):808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040808

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Huang, Ce, Haibin Wu, Zhi Li, Ran Li, and Hui Sun.
2023. "Interacting Multiple Model for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy" *Electronics* 12, no. 4: 808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040808