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Article

Testbed Emulator of Satellite-to-Ground FSO Downlink Affected by Atmospheric Seeing Including Scintillations and Clouds

1
Institute of Microwave and Photonic Engineering, Graz University of Technology, 12 Inffeldgasse, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
Department of Information, Electronics and Telecommunications, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hector E. Nistazakis, Konstantinos Peppas and Andreas D. Tsigopoulos
Electronics 2022, 11(7), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11071102
Received: 7 February 2022 / Revised: 25 March 2022 / Accepted: 25 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
Free Space Optics (FSO) technology enabling next-generation near-Earth communication is prone to severe propagation losses due to atmospheric-turbulence-induced fading and Mie scattering (clouds). As an alternative to the real-time evaluation of the weather effects over optical signal, a state-of-the-art laboratory testbed for verification of slant APD-based (Avalanche Photodiode) FSO links in laboratory conditions is proposed. In particular, a hardware channel emulator representing an FSO channel by means of fiber-coupled Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) controlled by driver board and software is utilized. While atmospheric scintillation data are generated based on Radiosonde Observation (RAOB) databases combined with a statistical design approach, cloud attenuation is introduced using Mie theory together with empirical Log-Normal modeling. The estimation of atmospheric-turbulence-induced losses within the emulated optical downlink is done with an FSO IM/DD prototype (Intensity Modulation/Direct Detection) relying on two different data throughputs using a transmitter with external and internal modulation. Moreover, the receiver under-test is a high-speed 10 Gbps APD photodetector with integrated Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) typically installed in OGSs (Optical Ground Stations) for LEO/GEO satellite communication. The overall testbed performance is addressed by a BER tester and a digital oscilloscope, providing BER graphs and eye diagrams that prove the applied approach for testing APD-TIA in the presence of weather-based disruptions. Furthermore, the testbed benefits from the used beam camera that measures the quality of the generated FSO beam. View Full-Text
Keywords: free-space optics (FSO); satellite communication; FSO channel emulator; atmospheric turbulence; scintillations; radiosonde observation (RAOB); clouds; Mie scattering; cirrus free-space optics (FSO); satellite communication; FSO channel emulator; atmospheric turbulence; scintillations; radiosonde observation (RAOB); clouds; Mie scattering; cirrus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ivanov, H.; Marzano, F.; Leitgeb, E.; Bekhrad, P. Testbed Emulator of Satellite-to-Ground FSO Downlink Affected by Atmospheric Seeing Including Scintillations and Clouds. Electronics 2022, 11, 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11071102

AMA Style

Ivanov H, Marzano F, Leitgeb E, Bekhrad P. Testbed Emulator of Satellite-to-Ground FSO Downlink Affected by Atmospheric Seeing Including Scintillations and Clouds. Electronics. 2022; 11(7):1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11071102

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ivanov, Hristo, Frank Marzano, Erich Leitgeb, and Pasha Bekhrad. 2022. "Testbed Emulator of Satellite-to-Ground FSO Downlink Affected by Atmospheric Seeing Including Scintillations and Clouds" Electronics 11, no. 7: 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11071102

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