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Article

Effects on Co-Presence of a Virtual Human: A Comparison of Display and Interaction Types

by 1 and 2,*
1
Content Research Division, ETRI, Daejeon 34129, Korea
2
School of IT Convergence, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rashid Mehmood
Electronics 2022, 11(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030367
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 24 January 2022 / Accepted: 25 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LifeXR: Concepts, Technology and Design for Everyday XR)
Recently, artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled virtual humans have been widely used in various fields in our everyday lives, such as for museum exhibitions and as information guides. Given the continued technological innovations in extended reality (XR), immersive display devices and interaction methods are evolving to provide a feeling of togetherness with a virtual human, termed co-presence. With regard to such technical developments, one main concern is how to improve the experience through the sense of co-presence as felt by participants. However, virtual human systems still have limited guidelines on effective methods, and there is a lack of research on how to visualize and interact with virtual humans. In this paper, we report a novel method to support a strong sense of co-presence with a virtual human, and we investigated the effects on co-presence with a comparison of display and interaction types. We conducted the experiment according to a specified scenario between the participant and the virtual human, and our experimental study showed that subjects who participated in an immersive 3D display with non-verbal interaction felt the greatest co-presence. Our results are expected to provide guidelines on how to focus on constructing AI-based interactive virtual humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual human; co-presence; interaction; extended reality (XR) virtual human; co-presence; interaction; extended reality (XR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.; Jo, D. Effects on Co-Presence of a Virtual Human: A Comparison of Display and Interaction Types. Electronics 2022, 11, 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030367

AMA Style

Kim D, Jo D. Effects on Co-Presence of a Virtual Human: A Comparison of Display and Interaction Types. Electronics. 2022; 11(3):367. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Daehwan, and Dongsik Jo. 2022. "Effects on Co-Presence of a Virtual Human: A Comparison of Display and Interaction Types" Electronics 11, no. 3: 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030367

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