Auditory Uta-Karuta: Development and Evaluation of an Accessible Card Game System Using Audible Cards for the Visually Impaired
2. Related Works
3. Auditory Card Game System
- Phase 1:
- Recognition Torifuda layoutArrange the Torifuda face up on a flat surface in front of the players. Players memorize the contents and position of the Torifuda as much as possible.
- Phase 2:
- Read out of YomifudaThe game master randomly draws a Yomifuda from the deck and starts reading it out.
- Phase 3:
- Race of finding TorifudaPlayers race to determine which Torifuda corresponds to the Yomifuda and touch/grab/claim what they think is the correct Torifuda.
3.3. Auditory Uta-Karuta
- Phase 0:
- Assignment of Torifuda devicesThe first step is to establish wireless communication between the Torifuda devices and the Yomifuda device. The wireless communication was implemented using Apple’s “MultiPeer Connectivity” framework, and all communication was done in signal to avoid delays as much as possible. After communication is established, the Yomifuda device randomly assigns content from its own sound data set for each of the Torifuda devices. At the same time, Yomifuda device gives the numbers to the Torifuda devices. This number indicates the order in which the Torifuda devices are presented with the sounds in Phase 1.The Torifuda devices hold the sound data used in the experiment. When given signal indicating a particular sound from the Yomifuda device, the Torifuda devices find the appropriate sound in its own sound data and prepares to play it. Similarly, when given signal indicating the order of read out, the Torifuda devices set the waiting time until playback according to the value of the signal.
- Phase 1:
- Recognition of Torifuda LayoutArrange the Torifuda devices face up on a flat surface in front of the players. When the game master presses the “Start” button displayed on the Yomifuda device, a signal the start of read out is given to all connected Torifuda devices. When the Torifuda devices receive a signal the start of read out from the Yomifuda device, they start reading based on the pre-set wait time and sound data. Players memorize the contents and position of the Torifuda devices as much as possible.
- Phase 2:
- Read out of YomifudaThe screen of the Yomifuda device shows the same number of buttons as the number of sounds used in the experiment. Each button corresponds to a sound, and when a button is pressed, the corresponding sound is played from the Yomifuda device. The game master operates the Yomifuda device, selects the Yomifuda, and presents the corresponding audio signal through the Yomifuda device.
- Phase 3:
- Race of Finding TorifudaPlayers race to determine which Torifuda devices corresponds to the Yomifuda, and touch/grab what they think are the correct Torifuda devices. In this phase, only the touched Torifuda device gives its own card order to the Yomifuda device. The Yomifuda device determines whether or not the correct Torifuda device was touched based on the card order given, and plays the correct/incorrect sound effect.
- Type :
- In Phase 2, all Torifuda devices do not present the sound.
- Type :
- In Phase 2, all Torifuda devices present the sound.
4. System Evaluation
4.2. Stimuli and Equipment
4.3. Procedure and Evaluation
- Case 1:
- Person with a visual impairment vs. sighted person
- Case 2:
- Person with a visual impairment vs. sighted person with a blindfold
- Case 3:
- Sighted person vs. sighted person with a blindfold
- Winning Rate:Winning rate of the people with visual impairments in Cases 1 and 2 and of those with a blindfold in Case 3.
- Subjective Evaluation of the Opponent:The opponent’s strength [0, 100] when the player strength is 50.
4.4. Results and Discussion
5. Suggestion for Suitable Auditory Cues in Auditory Card Game System
5.2. Valuable Parameters
- Degree of visual impairment: Since the proposed system assumes that people with visual impairments can participate in the same board game together with sighted people, we prepared sighted people and people with visual impairments as parameters indicating the degree of visual impairment. Furthermore, in order to clarify how much the visual information contributes to grasping the contents and position of the components for the sighted, the sighted people with a blindfold were prepared.
- Audio types: As shown in Table 2, the presentation of information using auditory stimuli can be divided into verbal sounds and nonverbal sounds, the latter of which can be further divided into representational sounds and abstract sounds. A typical of representational sounds is “auditory icons” , and a typical of abstract sounds is “earcons” . Representational sounds are real world sounds that have a direct association with an object, and abstract sounds are synthetic sounds that have no direct association with an object. Each of these types of sound have advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of verbal sounds is the meaning of the message is relatively unambiguous . However, users have to listen to the whole message to understand the meaning. Moreover, verbal sounds have language limitations. The advantage of representational sounds is that they can convey complex messages in a single sound. In addition, representational sounds are easy to identify by analogy. However, they cannot be assigned real world sounds for all events. The advantage of abstract sounds is flexibility. They can present information in a systematic way . Further, they can represent hierarchies by controlling their parameters such as timbre and pitch. However, they have difficulties associated with learning and remembering. In this experiment, we prepared three types of audio to be used: A: verbal sounds, B: representational sounds, and C: abstract sounds.
- The style of sound playback: We prepared two types of sound playback. Type , presents the auditory stimuli one by one in order, and Type presents the sound for all audible cards at the same time. While Type has the advantage that players can clearly recognize the information of the audible card one by one, Type has the advantage that players can obtain the information of multiple audible cards at once.
5.3. Stimuli and Equipment
5.5. General Discussion
- Sound identification error: experimental participants misinterpreted the meaning of the audible card presented them.
- Vertical localization error: experimental participants misplaced the audible card presented them in the vertical direction.
- Horizontal localization error: experimental participants misplaced the audible card presented them in the horizontal direction.
- Abstract sounds can adversely affect sound localization abilities and should not be used where component location sharing is required.
- In order for all players to correctly recognize the position of the components, audible cards should be aligned horizontally.
- It is preferable that the sounds stimuli used in the audible card be composed of representational sounds as much as possible.
- When using abstract sounds, it is recommended to limit the number of auditory stimuli from about 5 to 8 in order to reduce recognition error.
- It is effective to sound the audible cards one by one so that players can accurately recognize the location and information of multiple audible cards.
- When presenting multiple audible cards at the same time, it should be limited to about three cards, and no verbal sound should be used in this case.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|UA-Chess ||Splendor ||Hanabi ||Uno ||Auditory Uta-Karuta |
|The Role of Component||Public||Public/Private||Private||Private||Public|
|Equipment||PC||Card with Texture||Bigger Card||Card with Texture||Small Tablet-type Device|
|Input||Mouse, Keyboard, Voice||Touch Components||Look at Components||Touch Components||Game Master Operations|
|Output||Audio Cue, Screen reader||Haptic Sensation||Visual Sensation||Haptic Sensation||Auditory Sensation|
|A: Verbal Sounds||Non-Verbal Sounds|
|Summary||Sound presentation using real world sounds||B: Representational Sounds||C: Abstract Sounds|
|Real world sounds that have a direct association with an object||Synthetic sounds with artificial correspondence without using real world sounds|
|Advantage||Provide clear information||Intuitive understanding by analogy||Systematic presentation|
|Disadvantage||Language limitations||Cannot represent all the events||Lack of meaningful relationship with their referent|
|Degree of Visual Impairment||Audio Types||The Style of Sound Playback|
|1: Sighted||A: Verbal||Type : Play sounds one by one in order|
|2: Visually impaired||B: Representational||Type : Play sounds simultaneously|
|3: Sighted with blindfold||C: Abstract|
|Card Contents||Verbal Sound||Representational Sound|
|Glass||ɡ \ɾas||Pouring water into a glass|
|Knife||na\iɸ||Cutting food with a knife|
|Keyboard||kjiːbo\ːdo||Tapping a keyboard|
|Dog||in \||Dog’s bark|
|Scissors||hasamji||Scissors cutting paper|
|Dentifrice||hab \ɾaɕi||Brushing one’s teeth.|
|Hair Dryer||do\ɾaija||Drying one’s hair with a hair dryer|
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Miyakawa, H.; Kuratomo, N.; Salih, H.E.B.; Zempo, K. Auditory Uta-Karuta: Development and Evaluation of an Accessible Card Game System Using Audible Cards for the Visually Impaired. Electronics 2021, 10, 750. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060750
Miyakawa H, Kuratomo N, Salih HEB, Zempo K. Auditory Uta-Karuta: Development and Evaluation of an Accessible Card Game System Using Audible Cards for the Visually Impaired. Electronics. 2021; 10(6):750. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060750Chicago/Turabian Style
Miyakawa, Haruna, Noko Kuratomo, Hisham E. Bilal Salih, and Keiichi Zempo. 2021. "Auditory Uta-Karuta: Development and Evaluation of an Accessible Card Game System Using Audible Cards for the Visually Impaired" Electronics 10, no. 6: 750. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060750