# Microgrids Power Quality Enhancement Using Model Predictive Control

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Literature Review

#### 1.2. Main Contributions

## 2. Controller Design

#### 2.1. Fourier Expressions

#### 2.2. Predictive Model of the VSI

#### 2.3. Cost Function for the Islanded Mode

#### 2.4. Cost Function for the Grid-Connected Mode

#### 2.5. Cost Function for the Interconnected Mode

## 3. Simulation Results

#### 3.1. Comparison between MPC and PI-PWM Controllers for Single Microgrids

#### 3.2. Power Quality Management Results for Interconnected Microgrids Working without Presence of Grid

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CCS | Continuous Control Set |

DER | Distributed Energy Resources |

DMPC | Distributed Model Predictive Control |

ESS | Energy Storage System |

FCS | Finite Control State |

GPC | Generalized Predictive Control |

MPC | Model Predictive Control |

PQR | Power Quality and Realibility |

RES | Renewable Energy System |

SHE | Selective Harmonic Elimination |

SP | Smith Predictor |

VSI | Voltage Source Inverter |

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**Figure 3.**Comparison of the results for the active and reactive power exchange with the main grid between the Model Predictive Control (MPC) and PI-PWM controllers for phase a.

**Figure 4.**Comparison of the THD values for the current exchange with the main grid between the MPC and PI-PWM Controllers.

**Figure 6.**Absolute voltage phase angle value of the voltages at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) during the blackout of the main grid.

**Figure 10.**Absolute voltage phase angle value per phase and microgrid in mode interconnected and grid-islanded.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Filter inductance ${L}_{f}$ | 1 [mH] |

Filter inductance resistance ${R}_{{L}_{f}}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

Filter capacitor ${C}_{f}$ | 0.5 [mF] |

Filter capacitor resistance ${R}_{{C}_{f}}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

DC link voltage ${U}_{dc}$ | 950 [V] |

Neutral inductance ${L}_{N}$ | 2.5 [μF] |

Neutral inductance resistance ${R}_{{L}_{N}}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

Neutral balancing capacitors ${C}_{+},{C}_{-}$ | 6600 [μF] |

Grid connection line inductance ${L}_{grid}$ | 0.1 [mH] |

Grid connection line resistance ${R}_{grid}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

Slave inverter line inductance ${L}_{inv}$ | 0.1 [mH] |

Slave inverter line resistance ${R}_{inv}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

Non-linear load line inductance ${L}_{non}$ | 0.1 [mH] |

Non-linear load line resistance ${R}_{{L}_{non}}$ | 0.1 [$\Omega $] |

Non-linear load dc resistance ${R}_{non}$ | 60 [$\Omega $] |

Non-linear load dc capacitor ${C}_{non}$ | 6.6 [mF] |

Unbalanced load phase a resistance ${R}_{a}$ | 1 [M$\Omega $] |

Unbalanced load phase b resistance ${R}_{b}$ | 10 [$\Omega $] |

Unbalanced load phase c resistance ${R}_{c}$ | 10 [$\Omega $] |

Unbalanced load phase b inductance ${L}_{b}$ | 1 [mH] |

Unbalanced load phase c capacitor ${C}_{c}$ | 0.1 [mF] |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Garcia-Torres, F.; Vazquez, S.; Moreno-Garcia, I.M.; Gil-de-Castro, A.; Roncero-Sanchez, P.; Moreno-Munoz, A. Microgrids Power Quality Enhancement Using Model Predictive Control. *Electronics* **2021**, *10*, 328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030328

**AMA Style**

Garcia-Torres F, Vazquez S, Moreno-Garcia IM, Gil-de-Castro A, Roncero-Sanchez P, Moreno-Munoz A. Microgrids Power Quality Enhancement Using Model Predictive Control. *Electronics*. 2021; 10(3):328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030328

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Garcia-Torres, Felix, Sergio Vazquez, Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia, Aurora Gil-de-Castro, Pedro Roncero-Sanchez, and Antonio Moreno-Munoz. 2021. "Microgrids Power Quality Enhancement Using Model Predictive Control" *Electronics* 10, no. 3: 328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030328