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Article

A Study on Persistence of GAN-Based Vision-Induced Gustatory Manipulation

1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayamacho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan
2
Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Information Studies, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
3
Department of Informatics, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
4
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jungong Han
Electronics 2021, 10(10), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101157
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 24 April 2021 / Accepted: 30 April 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
Vision-induced gustatory manipulation interfaces can help people with dietary restrictions feel as if they are eating what they want by modulating the appearance of the alternative foods they are eating in reality. However, it is still unclear whether vision-induced gustatory change persists beyond a single bite, how the sensation changes over time, and how it varies among individuals from different cultural backgrounds. The present paper reports on a user study conducted to answer these questions using a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based real-time image-to-image translation system. In the user study, 16 participants were presented somen noodles or steamed rice through a video see-through head mounted display (HMD) both in two conditions; without or with visual modulation (somen noodles and steamed rice were translated into ramen noodles and curry and rice, respectively), and brought food to the mouth and tasted it five times with an interval of two minutes. The results of the experiments revealed that vision-induced gustatory manipulation is persistent in many participants. Their persistent gustatory changes are divided into three groups: those in which the intensity of the gustatory change gradually increased, those in which it gradually decreased, and those in which it did not fluctuate, each with about the same number of participants. Although the generalizability is limited due to the small population, it was also found that non-Japanese and male participants tended to perceive stronger gustatory manipulation compared to Japanese and female participants. We believe that our study deepens our understanding and insight into vision-induced gustatory manipulation and encourages further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-modal illusion; gustatory manipulation; gustatory persistence; augmented reality; neural network cross-modal illusion; gustatory manipulation; gustatory persistence; augmented reality; neural network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakano, K.; Horita, D.; Kawai, N.; Isoyama, N.; Sakata, N.; Kiyokawa, K.; Yanai, K.; Narumi, T. A Study on Persistence of GAN-Based Vision-Induced Gustatory Manipulation. Electronics 2021, 10, 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101157

AMA Style

Nakano K, Horita D, Kawai N, Isoyama N, Sakata N, Kiyokawa K, Yanai K, Narumi T. A Study on Persistence of GAN-Based Vision-Induced Gustatory Manipulation. Electronics. 2021; 10(10):1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101157

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakano, Kizashi, Daichi Horita, Norihiko Kawai, Naoya Isoyama, Nobuchika Sakata, Kiyoshi Kiyokawa, Keiji Yanai, and Takuji Narumi. 2021. "A Study on Persistence of GAN-Based Vision-Induced Gustatory Manipulation" Electronics 10, no. 10: 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101157

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