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Article

Input Impedance Analysis of Wearable Antenna and Experimental Study with Real Human Subjects: Differences between Individual Users

1
Research Institute for Science and Technology, Organization for Research Advancement, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan
2
Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Youn Tae Kim, Junghwan Hwang and Meina Li
Electronics 2021, 10(10), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101152
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
In human body communication (HBC) systems, radio-frequency signals are excited in the human body through a wearable antenna comprised of electrodes that are in contact with the surface of the body. The input impedance characteristics of these antennas are important design parameters for increasing transmission efficiency and reducing signal reflection, similar to other wireless circuits. In this study, we discuss variations of input impedance characteristics of a wearable antenna prototype caused by differences among real human subjects. A realistic human arm model is used for simulations, and the analytical results obtained are compared to measured data obtained from real human subjects, in a range from 1 to 100 MHz. The simulations of input impedance characteristics from antennas worn on the wrists of male and female models with dry and wet skin conditions show that the impedance variation between genders is small. The moisture condition of the skin has little influence on frequencies exceeding several MHz. Measurements with a proto-type wearable antenna and 22 real human subjects reveal that HBC is robust against the variations of individual users from the viewpoint of the voltage standing wave ratio. Moreover, a simplified rectangular prism model is proposed to analyze the thickness of body tissues. Comparisons of measured input impedances indicate that individual differences in impedance are mainly due to differences in the thickness of skin and fat layers. The model also enables us to design the antenna prototype without multiple subject experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: human body communication; wearable antenna; input impedance; electromagnetic field simulation; subject experiment; biological tissue; individual difference human body communication; wearable antenna; input impedance; electromagnetic field simulation; subject experiment; biological tissue; individual difference
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muramatsu, D.; Sasaki, K. Input Impedance Analysis of Wearable Antenna and Experimental Study with Real Human Subjects: Differences between Individual Users. Electronics 2021, 10, 1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101152

AMA Style

Muramatsu D, Sasaki K. Input Impedance Analysis of Wearable Antenna and Experimental Study with Real Human Subjects: Differences between Individual Users. Electronics. 2021; 10(10):1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101152

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muramatsu, Dairoku, and Ken Sasaki. 2021. "Input Impedance Analysis of Wearable Antenna and Experimental Study with Real Human Subjects: Differences between Individual Users" Electronics 10, no. 10: 1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101152

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