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Characterizing the Urban Mine—Challenges of Simplified Chemical Analysis of Anthropogenic Mineral Residues

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Chair of Circular Economy and Recycling Technology, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
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Technology and Society Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Empa, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Advanced Analytical Technologies, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Empa, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
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Particles-Biology Interactions Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Empa, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Resources 2019, 8(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030132
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
Anthropogenic mineral residues are characterized by their material complexity and heterogeneity, which pose challenges to the chemical analysis of multiple elements. However, creating an urban mine knowledge database requires data using affordable and simple chemical analysis methods, providing accurate and valid results. In this study, we assess the applicability of simplified multi-element chemical analysis methods for two anthropogenic mineral waste matrices: (1) lithium-ion battery ash that was obtained from thermal pre-treatment and (2) rare earth elements (REE)-bearing iron-apatite ore from a Swedish tailing dam. For both samples, simplified methods comprising ‘in-house’ wet-chemical analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry were compared to the results of the developed matrix-specific validated methods. Simplified wet-chemical analyses showed significant differences when compared to the validated method, despite proven internal quality assurance, such as verification of sample homogeneity, precision, and accuracy. Matrix-specific problems, such as incomplete digestion and overlapping spectra due to similar spectral lines (ICP-OES) or element masses (ICP-MS), can result in quadruple overestimations or underestimation by half when compared to the reference value. ED-XRF analysis proved to be applicable as semi-quantitative analysis for elements with mass fractions higher than 1000 ppm and an atomic number between Z 12 and Z 50. For elements with low mass fractions, ED-XRF analysis performed poorly and showed deviations of up to 90 times the validated value. Concerning all the results, we conclude that the characterization of anthropogenic mineral residues is prone to matrix-specific interferences, which have to be addressed with additional quality assurance measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-element chemical analysis; mineral residues; simplified chemical analyses; lithium battery ash; mining waste; urban mine; recycling; resource recovery multi-element chemical analysis; mineral residues; simplified chemical analyses; lithium battery ash; mining waste; urban mine; recycling; resource recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mählitz, P.M.; Løvik, A.N.; Figi, R.; Schreiner, C.; Kuntz, C.; Korf, N.; Rösslein, M.; Wäger, P.; Rotter, V.S. Characterizing the Urban Mine—Challenges of Simplified Chemical Analysis of Anthropogenic Mineral Residues. Resources 2019, 8, 132.

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