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Resource Targets in Europe and Worldwide: An Overview

Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy, Doeppersberg 19, Wuppertal 42103, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Damien Giurco
Resources 2015, 4(3), 597-620;
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
For 20 years, the number of resource policy approaches with direct and indirect relations to raw materials, resource and material efficiency has grown enormously at national and international level. This discussion paper makes an inventory of different political and regulatory approaches that contain a direct or indirect reference to resources such as construction materials, industrial minerals, or metals. They are examined and evaluated regarding foci and resource priorities as well as further categories such as target lines, governance levels, indicators used, integration into wider target systems, specification, and implementation. The aim is to provide an overview of the spectrum of resource objectives in international, European, and national strategies, programs, and initiatives. The closer analysis of raw material targets embedded in the policy programs and legal approaches reveals that most goals lack a time frame and a concrete vision, thus remain at a strategic level. To complement the overview, the state of research in the field of modeling and simulation is briefly discussed. Concluding remarks concerning their relation to the objectives identified and the task of target setting complete the discussion. View Full-Text
Keywords: resource management; resource policy; resource efficiency; material efficiency resource management; resource policy; resource efficiency; material efficiency
MDPI and ACS Style

Bahn-Walkowiak, B.; Steger, S. Resource Targets in Europe and Worldwide: An Overview. Resources 2015, 4, 597-620.

AMA Style

Bahn-Walkowiak B, Steger S. Resource Targets in Europe and Worldwide: An Overview. Resources. 2015; 4(3):597-620.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bahn-Walkowiak, Bettina, and Sören Steger. 2015. "Resource Targets in Europe and Worldwide: An Overview" Resources 4, no. 3: 597-620.

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