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Article

Potential Benefits and Constraints of Development of Critical Raw Materials’ Production in the EU: Analysis of Selected Case Studies

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Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków, Poland
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GTK Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, 02151 Espoo, Finland
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Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Ap.7586, 2720-866 Amadora, Portugal
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Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Calle de Ríos Rosas, 23, 28003 Madrid, Spain
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SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, P.O. Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden
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NGU Geological Survey of Norway, Postboks 6315 Torgarden, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eva Pongrácz
Resources 2021, 10(7), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10070067
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Deposit Safeguarding in the EU)
Major benefits and constraints related to mineral extraction within the EU have been identified on the examples of selected critical raw materials’ deposits. Analyzed case studies include the following ore deposits: Myszków Mo-W-Cu (Poland), Juomasuo Au-Co (Finland), S. Pedro das Águias W-Sn (Portugal), Penouta Nb-Ta-Sn (Spain), Norra Kärr REEs (Sweden) and Trælen graphite (Norway). They represent different stages of development, from the early/grassroot exploration stage, through advanced exploration and active mining, up to reopening of abandoned mines, and refer to different problems and constraints related to the possibility of exploitation commencement. The multi-criteria analysis of the cases has included geological and economic factors as well as environmental, land use, social acceptance and infrastructure factors. These factors, in terms of cost and benefit analysis, have been considered at three levels: local, country and EU levels. The analyzed cases indicated the major obstacles that occur in different stages of deposit development and need to be overcome in order to enable a new deposit exploitation commencement. These are environmental (Juomasuo and Myszków), spatial (Juomasuo) as well as social constraints (Norra Kärr, Juomasuo). In the analyzed cases, the most important constraints related to future deposit extraction occur primarily at a local level, while some important benefits are identified mainly at the country and the EU levels. These major benefits are related to securing long-term supplies for the national industries and strategically important EU industry sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical raw materials; minerals’ security; mineral resources; mining; environmental impact; social license to operate; case studies critical raw materials; minerals’ security; mineral resources; mining; environmental impact; social license to operate; case studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guzik, K.; Galos, K.; Kot-Niewiadomska, A.; Eerola, T.; Eilu, P.; Carvalho, J.; Fernandez-Naranjo, F.J.; Arvidsson, R.; Arvanitidis, N.; Raaness, A. Potential Benefits and Constraints of Development of Critical Raw Materials’ Production in the EU: Analysis of Selected Case Studies. Resources 2021, 10, 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10070067

AMA Style

Guzik K, Galos K, Kot-Niewiadomska A, Eerola T, Eilu P, Carvalho J, Fernandez-Naranjo FJ, Arvidsson R, Arvanitidis N, Raaness A. Potential Benefits and Constraints of Development of Critical Raw Materials’ Production in the EU: Analysis of Selected Case Studies. Resources. 2021; 10(7):67. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10070067

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guzik, Katarzyna, Krzysztof Galos, Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska, Toni Eerola, Pasi Eilu, Jorge Carvalho, Francisco J. Fernandez-Naranjo, Ronald Arvidsson, Nikolaos Arvanitidis, and Agnes Raaness. 2021. "Potential Benefits and Constraints of Development of Critical Raw Materials’ Production in the EU: Analysis of Selected Case Studies" Resources 10, no. 7: 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10070067

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