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Open AccessArticle

Mongolia, Modernity, Systems + Solutions: Questing Holistic Design + Planning Strategies for a Brighter Tomorrow

Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary + Sinclairstudio Inc., Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Academic Editors: Josue Antonio Nescolarde Selva and Josep-Lluis Usó-Doménech
Systems 2017, 5(2), 26;
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Social Systems: Theory And Practice)
PDF [1763 KB, uploaded 23 March 2017]


Mongolia is a unique nation underpinned by rich history, spectacular landscapes, rich culture and deep spirituality. It is also a country grappling with change, modernization, growth and governance. The author has been extensively engaged, over many years, in research and consulting in this interesting milieu, including architectural design, city planning, informal settlements and poverty reduction. Building from an innovative integrative framework (Sinclair 2009) for design and planning, the present paper explores the challenges of realizing progress in Mongolia through the lens of systems thinking. In particular, the author critically examines parameters that inform and inspire the development of guidelines to aid in more effective reconsideration, reform and redesign of the urban fabric. A key dimension of the research centers on ethnographic methods, with sensitivities focused on the needs, desires and aspirations of the local community. Many efforts to modernize, advance and develop nations are hamstrung through fragmentation, specialization, narrow agendas and an inability to see the broader picture. The current speculative proposition aims to connect the dots—intentionally pursuing interdisciplinary and interconnected ways of seeing, thinking and acting. While not directly providing answers to questions about the next steps on Mongolia’s path, the author builds and delineates ways of knowing that can support such answers and inform such steps. The main goal of the paper is to consider the complicated ethos in more systemic, holistic, overarching and impactful ways. View Full-Text
Keywords: systems; holism; design; planning; architecture; Mongolia; culture; city systems; holism; design; planning; architecture; Mongolia; culture; city

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Sinclair, B.R. Mongolia, Modernity, Systems + Solutions: Questing Holistic Design + Planning Strategies for a Brighter Tomorrow. Systems 2017, 5, 26.

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