# Exploring Intra-Urban Accessibility and Impacts of Pollution Policies with an Agent-Based Simulation Platform: GaMiroD

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UMR 8504 Géographie-cités, CNRS, Universities of Paris 1 and Paris 7, Paris 75006 France

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PACTE UMR 5194 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, PACTE, Grenoble F-38000, France

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DISC/FEMTO-ST, Université de Franche Comté, 16 route de Gray, Besançon 25000, France

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UMI 209 UMMISCO, IRD–UPMC, 32 Avenue Henri Varagnat, Bondy 93143, France

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Laboratoire Image, Ville, Environnement–UMR 7362, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg 67083, France

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Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports (UMR 5593), ENTPE, Université de Lyon, Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin cedex, France

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UMR6049 du CNRS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR Sciences humaines, 2 Boulevard Gabriel, Dijon 21000, France

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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editors: Koen H. van Dam and Rémy Courdier

Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 31 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agent-Based Modelling of City Systems)

In this work we address the issue of sustainable cities by focusing on one of their very central components: daily mobility. Indeed, if cities can be interpreted as spatial organizations allowing social interactions, the number of daily movements needed to reach this goal is continuously increasing. Therefore, improving urban accessibility merely results in increasing traffic and its negative externalities (congestion, accidents, pollution, noise, etc.), while eventually reducing the quality of life of people in the city. This is why several urban-transport policies are implemented in order to reduce individual mobility impacts while maintaining equitable access to the city. This challenge is however non-trivial and therefore we propose to investigate this issue from the complex systems point of view. The real spatial-temporal urban accessibility of citizens cannot be approximated just by focusing on space and implies taking into account the space-time activity patterns of individuals, in a more dynamic way. Thus, given the importance of local interactions in such a perspective, an agent based approach seems to be a relevant solution. This kind of individual based and “interactionist” approach allows us to explore the possible impact of individual behaviors on the overall dynamics of the city but also the possible impact of global measures on individual behaviors. In this paper, we give an overview of the Miro Project and then focus on the GaMiroD model design from real data analysis to model exploration tuned by transportation-oriented scenarios. Among them, we start with the the impact of a LEZ (Low Emission Zone) in the city center.