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Biology 2018, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology7010019

Human Intrinsic Factor Expression for Bioavailable Vitamin B12 Enrichment in Microalgae

1
Industrial Biotechnology Centre, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Giles Lane, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7 NK, UK
2
Dipartimento dell’Innovazione Industriale e Digitale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 6, 90128 Palermo, Italy
3
Copenhagen Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalgal Biotechnology)
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Abstract

Dietary supplements and functional foods are becoming increasingly popular complements to regular diets. A recurring ingredient is the essential cofactor vitamin B12 (B12). Microalgae are making their way into the dietary supplement and functional food market but do not produce B12, and their B12 content is very variable. In this study, the suitability of using the human B12-binding protein intrinsic factor (IF) to enrich bioavailable B12 using microalgae was tested. The IF protein was successfully expressed from the nuclear genome of the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the addition of an N-terminal ARS2 signal peptide resulted in efficient IF secretion to the medium. Co-abundance of B12 and the secreted IF suggests the algal produced IF protein is functional and B12-binding. Utilizing IF expression could be an efficient tool to generate B12-enriched microalgae in a controlled manner that is suitable for vegetarians and, potentially, more bioavailable for humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydomonas; vitamin B12; cobalamin; intrinsic factor; microalgae; nuclear transformation; recombinant protein; dietary supplements; functional foods Chlamydomonas; vitamin B12; cobalamin; intrinsic factor; microalgae; nuclear transformation; recombinant protein; dietary supplements; functional foods
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lima, S.; Webb, C.L.; Deery, E.; Robinson, C.; Zedler, J.A.Z. Human Intrinsic Factor Expression for Bioavailable Vitamin B12 Enrichment in Microalgae. Biology 2018, 7, 19.

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